This paper focus on defining a research question while conducting action research among third-year students attending a course on Research Literacy at a teacher education college. This paper discusses the process of preparing for and conducting action research among third-year students attending a course on Research Literacy at a teacher education college. The students were asked to conduct an action research on their classroom activities. The aim of this article is to present the process and pinpointing the discomfort of the students in formulating a research question suited to action research thanks to two prerequisite conditions: the `safe space' and the `tender spot'. The research findings illustrate that the students had difficulty defining their ` tender spot'. It was necessary to create a `safe space'. Furthermore, the findings show that the `tender spot' issues were associated with disciplinary content far more than with generic lesson management or classroom management issues. The approach discussed here is leading to positive change and it may be that this professional development tool can facilitate the induction of novice teachers everywhere.
An appealing alternative approach to the conventional electro-chemical deposition is presented, which can be universally utilized to form nanomaterial coatings from their aqueous dispersions without involving their oxidation-reduction. It is based on altering the ionic strength by electrical potential in the vicinity of the electrode surface, which causes the nanomaterials to deposit. The concept has been demonstrated for four different systems.
We report the first attempt of using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in the shape of nanoparticles that were doped with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensing of molecular species. Specifically, AuNPs doped molecularly imprinted nano-spheres (AuNPs@nanoMIPs) were synthesized by one-pot precipitation polymerization using Sudan IV as the template for the SERS sensing. The AuNPs@nanoMIPs were characterized by various modes of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) that showed the exact location of the AuNPs inside the MIP particles. The effects of Au concentration and solution stirring on the shape and the polydispersity of the particles were studied. Significant enhancement of the Raman signals was observed only when the MIP particles were doped with the AuNPs. The SERS signal improved significantly with increase in the Au concentration inside the AuNPs@nanoMIPs. Selectivity measurements of the Sudan IV imprinted AuNPs@nanoMIPs carried out with different Sudan derivatives showed high selectivity of the AuNPs-doped MIP particles.
Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics have been prevalently used as coatings for implants because of their excellent osteoconductive and bioactive properties. Yet, bone regeneration procedures might have complications such as bacterial infection, local inflammation, bone destruction, and impaired bone healing. Here, we present a novel in situ electrodeposition of CaP with chitosan nanoparticles containing antibiotics. The deposition was shown to be fast and efficient. The deposited layer of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and monotite contained a large amount of gentamicin, which was released gradually over a period of 15 days. These phases may be beneficial for bone growth, as OCP has higher solubility than the stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HAp) and is commonly considered as a precursor to HAp, while monotite has even faster resorbability. In addition, both the cytotoxicity and biomineralization of the coating were studied, and the coating was proven to be noncytotoxic and highly biomimetic.
Biofouling, the adsorption of organisms to a surface, is a major problem today in many areas of our lives. This includes: (i) health, as biofouling on medical device leads to hospital-acquired infections, (ii) water, since the accumulation of organisms on membranes and pipes in desalination systems harms the function of the system, and (iii) energy, due to the heavy load of the organic layer that accumulates on marine vessels and causes a larger consumption of fuel. This paper presents an effective electrochemical approach for generating antifouling and antimicrobial surfaces. Distinct from previously reported antifouling or antimicrobial electrochemical studies, we demonstrate the formation of a hydrogen gas bubble layer through the application of a low-voltage square waveform pulses to the conductive surface. This electrochemically generated gas bubble layer serves as a separation barrier between the surroundings and the target surface where the adhesion of bacteria can be deterred. Our results indicate that this barrier could effectively reduce the adsorption of bacteria to the surface by 99.5%. We propose that the antimicrobial mechanism correlates with the fundamental of hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). HER leads to an arid environment that does not allow the existence of live bacteria. In addition, we show that this drought condition kills the preadhered bacteria on the surface due to water stress. This work serves as the basis for the exploration of future self-sustainable antifouling techniques such as incorporating it with photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical reactions.
The electrochemically triggered release of doxorubicin (DOX) from flexible electrodes modified electrophoretically with reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-DOX is reported. The release is driven by a positive potential pulse that decreases the pH of the rGO-DOX surface locally, which is confirmed by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in situ. In vitro cell viability tests confirms that the delivery system meets therapeutic needs.
A key component in solar thermal energy conversion system is the light collector that is coated with an absorbing material. Optimal performance is accomplished by high absorptance and low emittance. The best collectors are fabricated by vacuum deposition processes, which are limited to small size and flat objects. Here, the formation and performance of a new three-layer solar selective coating, which is formed by a simple wet-deposition process is reported. The solar absorbing layer is based on carbon nanotubes, which are considered the most absorbing material. This layer is coated by a second layer of ITO, which functions as an IR reflecting layer, followed by an AlOOH anti-reflective layer. The resulting CNT/ITO/AlOOH coating exhibited the best-reported spectral selectivity by wet deposition process, with high absorptance of 0.941 +/- 0.004 and low emittance of 0.13 +/- 0.02 at room temperature. Furthermore, the multilayer sprayable coating is stable at elevated temperature for a prolong time and therefore, shows promise for application in large scale and on-site solar thermal facilities.
A new redox-free electrochemical approach for driving the deposition of two-dimensional (2D) layered MoS2 nanosheets is described. First, poly(acylic acid) (PAA) functionalized layered MoS2 nanosheets (PAA-MoS2) is prepared to form a stable aqueous PAA-MoS2 dispersion, which is subsequently used for the electrochemical deposition. In contrast to previous electrodeposition methods of MoS2, which involve the redox of molecular precursors of Mo and S, herein we introduce an electrochemical approach for the deposition of 2D layered MoS2 nanosheets directly from their nanometric building blocks, namely from their aqueous dispersion. This ``nano to nano'' approach is based on altering the ionic strength at the vicinity of the electrode surface by applying a potential. Specifically, the electrogeneration of Cue-1 ions, cause the PAA-MoS2 nanosheets in the dispersion to aggregate and deposit on the copper electrode. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis show clearly that the deposited layered MoS2 maintains its original structure. Furthermore, the ;electrodeposited PAA-MoS2 nanosheets on copper show excellent catalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction with low overpotential. Hence, we believe that these findings could lead to a generic approach for the formation of thin films or patterns of 2D nanomaterials. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.