@article {5038,
title = {Correlation Without Mediation: Expanding the Set of Equilibria Outcomes by {\textquoteleft}Cheap{\textquoteright} Pre-Play},
journal = {Journal of Economic Theory},
volume = {80},
year = {1998},
pages = {108-122},
abstract = {Correlation Without Mediation: Expanding the Set of Equilibria Outcomes by {\textquoteleft}Cheap{\textquoteright} Pre-Play Procedures
Let P be a correlated equilibrium distribution on the set of outcomes of a game G. Can P be implemented by some "cheap" pre-play procedure that does not involve a mediator? It is shown that if there are two distinct Nash equilibrium payoffs for each player in G and if P is rational (that is, consists of probabilities which are rational numbers) and generates for each player i an expected payoff which is above her worst Nash equilibrium payoff, then P can be virtually implemented in a sequential equilibrium of an extended game which is generated by adding a "cheap" pre-play phase.\ },
author = {Elchanan Ben-Porath}
}