We study the thermodynamic behavior of nonpolar liquid mixtures in the vicinity of curved charged objects, such as electrodes or charged colloids. There is a critical value of charge (or potential), above which a phase-separation transition occurs, and the interface between high- and low-dielectric constant components becomes sharp. Analytical and numerical composition profiles are given, and the equilibrium front location as a function of charge or voltage is found. We further employ a simple Cahn–Hilliard type equation to study the dynamics of phase separation in spatially nonuniform electric fields. We find an exponential temporal relaxation of the demixing front location. We give the dependence of the steady-state location and characteristic time on the charge, mixture composition and ambient temperature. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Stimulated Brillouin scattering pulse compression of a 2.5 ns laser into a 175 ps pulse using a fused quartz is demonstrated without optical damage. The synchronization and the time jitter between the initial and the compressed pulses were measured (σ<80 ps) and analyzed numerically. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) occurs in media with large gain, and affects both the magnitude and the spatial distribution of the inversion. In this work we theoretically study the effect of ASE in three-dimensional, rectangular slab amplifiers, using Monte Carlo type computer simulations. We found that in one-dimensional amplifiers ASE is always larger at the edges so that the inversion has a maxima at the center of the amplifier. However, in two- and three-dimensional amplifiers, the inversion has a minimum at the center of the amplifier for low gain, and a maximum at the center of the amplifier for high gain. Thus, the inversion profile can be changed by increasing the gain from a minimum at the center, through a plateau, to a maximum at the center. A simple analytical theory was developed and agrees with these results
A classical, three-dimensional analysis of excitation and control of vibrational-rotational degrees of freedom of a polar diatomic molecule by chirped laser field is presented. The control strategy is based on autoresonance (adiabatic nonlinear synchronization) phenomenon, in which the molecule automatically adjusts its state for staying in a persistent resonance with the laser field despite variation of the laser frequency. Thresholds on driving field amplitudes for entering the autoresonant excitation regime by passage through different resonances are calculated. In autoresonance, the molecule can be excited to large energies and approach the dissociation limit by substantially weaker laser fields than with constant-frequency drives.
A method for generation of a chirped, ultrawideband infrared source by use of optical parametric generation in periodically poled crystals and pumped by a chirped Ti:sapphire laser is described. A similar to35% bandwidth in the idler branch was demonstrated in a periodically poled LiTaO3 crystal pumped by a chirped Ti:sapphire laser with 2.1% bandwidth. Optical parametric generation and optical parametric amplification configuration allowed us to generate up to a similar to250-muJ chirped pulse from 2.1 to 3 mum. (C) 2005 Optical Society of America.
The autoresonance phenomenon allows excitation of a classical, oscillatory nonlinear system to high energies by using a weak, chirped frequency forcing. Ladder climbing is its counterpart in quantum mechanics. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, conditions for the transition from the quantum to the classical regimes are outlined. The similarities and differences between the two approaches are presented.
Generation of axisymmetric stable, long plasma channels with temperatures of 8 eV and electron densities ∼ 10[sup 19] cm[sup -3] by a high-current evaporating-wall capillary discharge with prepulse ablative plasma is reported. Results of spectroscopic measurements of the temperature and electron density of plasma produced in a polyethylene capillary are presented. The discharge provides a convenient source of dense highly ionized plasmas for laser-plasma interaction studies. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
An experimental study of third-harmonic generation in methane with a 100-fs, 820-nm, Ti:sapphire laser in a tight focusing geometry is presented. The harmonic intensity and bandwidth were measured in a range of intensities extending from below to far above the first ionization threshold and at pressures as high as 10 atm (1 atm = 760 Torr). The harmonic signal follows a power-law dependence on laser intensity with an exponent of similar to 7 and saturates at an intensity I-s similar to 4 x 10(14) W/cm(2). The conversion efficiency was found to increase with the pressure for laser intensities smaller than the saturation intensity I-s and to decrease with the pressure at larger intensities. At laser intensities larger than the saturation intensity a substantial modification in the third-harmonic bandwidth and structure was observed. (C) 1999 Optical Society of America [S0740-3224(99)00905-4].