Publications/Patents

2018
Perrin L, Ortega F, Rubio RG, Pajor-Swierzy A, Magdassi S, Kamyshny A, Ortega F, Rubio RG. Evaporation of Nanosuspensions on Substrates with Different Hydrophobicity. ACS Appl Mater InterfacesACS applied materials & interfaces. 2018;10 (3) :3082 - 3093.Abstract
Liquid drop evaporation on surfaces is present in many industrial and medical applications, e.g., printed electronics, spraying of pesticides, DNA mapping, etc. Despite this strong interest, a theoretical description of the dynamic of the evaporation of complex liquid mixtures and nanosuspensions is still lacking. Indeed, one of the aspects that have not been included in the current theoretical descriptions is the competition between the kinetics of evaporation and the adsorption of surfactants and/or particles at the liquid/vapor and liquid/solid interfaces. Materials formed by an electrically isolating solid on which a patterned conducting layer was formed by the deposits left after drop evaporation have been considered as very promising for building electrical circuits on flexible plastic substrates. In this work, we have done an exhaustive study of the evaporation of nanosuspensions of latex and hydrophobized silver nanoparticles on four substrates of different hydrophobicity. The advancing and receding contact angles as well as the time dependence of the volume of the droplets have been measured over a broad range of particle concentrations. Also, mixtures of silver particles and a surfactant, commonly used in industrial printing, have been examined. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics at both the air/liquid and solid/liquid interfaces have been measured. Whereas the latex particles do not adsorb at the solid/liquid and only slightly reduce the surface tension, the silver particles strongly adsorb at both interfaces. The experimental results of the evaporation process were compared with the predictions of the theory of Semenov et al. (Evaporation of Sessile Water Droplets: Universal Behavior in the Presence of Contact Angle Hysteresis. Colloids Surf. Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 2011, 391 (1-3), 135-144) and showed surprisingly good agreement despite that the theory was developed for pure liquids. The morphology of the deposits left by the droplets after total evaporation was studied by scanning electronic microscopy, and the effects of the substrate, the particle nature, and their concentrations on these patterns are discussed.[on SciFinder (R)]
Shi L, Layani M, Cai X, Zhao H, Magdassi S, Lan M. An inkjet printed Ag electrode fabricated on plastic substrate with a chemical sintering approach for the electrochemical sensing of hydrogen peroxide. Sens. Actuators, BSensors and Actuators, B: Chemical. 2018;256 :938 - 945.Abstract
The trend of developing electrochem. sensors toward cellular level detection put forward higher requirements of the electrodes in the detection performance. However, common disk electrodes or conventional screen printing electrodes meet up with some limitations in the electrocatalytic activity and electron transfer capability. In this work, we applied inkjet printing technol. to fabricate electrodes to make some improvements. Highly conductive Ag nanoparticles based electrodes were obtained on plastic substrate by inkjet printing technol. followed by a sintering process at room temp. The resistivity of IPAgE is detd. to be 64.0 ± 5.3 μΩ cm. With better cond. and the nanoparticle-based interface, superb electrochem. response of IPAgE for H2O2 was obtained, nearly 300-fold higher than the conventional screen printed Ag electrode. Moreover, high sensitivity of 287 μA mM-1 cm-2 with a LOD of 5.0 μM was obtained under the optimized 20 printed layers. The inkjet printed Ag electrodes were also credibly applied in the detection of H2O2 release from living cells. This work demonstrates inkjet printing is a promising method for the high performance electrochem. sensors. [on SciFinder(R)]
Friedman-Levi Y, Eyal S, Larush L, Magdassi S, Diana M, Marchegiani F, Marescaux J, Goder N, Lahat G, Klausner J, et al. Optimization of liposomal indocyanine green for imaging of the urinary pathways and a proof of concept in a pig model. Surg EndoscSurgical endoscopy. 2018;32 (2) :963 - 970.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic ureteral injury is an increasing concern in the laparoscopic era, affecting both patient morbidity and costs. Current techniques enabling intraoperative ureteral identification require invasive procedures or radiations. Our aim was to develop a real-time, non-invasive, radiation-free method to visualize ureters, based on near-infrared (NIR) imaging. For this purpose, we interfered with the biliary excretion pathway of the indocyanine green (ICG) fluorophore by loading it into liposomes, enabling renal excretion. In this work, we studied various parameters influencing ureteral imaging. METHODS: Fluorescence intensity (FI) of various liposomal ICG sizes and doses were characterized in vitro and subsequently tested in vivo in mice and pigs. Quantification was performed by measuring FI in multiple points and applying the ureteral/retroperitoneum ratio (U/R). RESULTS: The optimal liposomal ICG loading dose was 20%, for the different liposomes' sizes tested (30, 60, 100 nm). Higher concentration of ICG decreased FI. In vivo, the optimal liposome size for ureteral imaging was 60 nm, which yielded a U/R of 5.2 ± 1.7 (p < 0.001 vs. free ICG). The optimal ICG dose was 8 mg/kg (U/R = 2.1 ± 0.4, p < 0.05 vs. 4 mg/kg). Only urine after liposomal ICG injection had a measurable FI, and not after free ICG injection. Using a NIR-optimized laparoscopic camera, ureters could be effectively imaged in pigs, from 10 min after injection and persisting for at least 90 min. Ureteral peristaltic waves could be clearly identified only after liposomal ICG injection. CONCLUSIONS: Optimization of liposomal ICG allowed to visualize enhanced ureters in animal models and seems a promising fluorophore engineering, which calls for further developments.[on SciFinder (R)]
Rosen YS, Magdassi S. Effect of Carboxylic Acids on Reactive Transfer Printing of Copper Formate Ink. MRS Adv.MRS Advances. 2018;3 (5) :261 - 267.Abstract
During decompn. of copper formate, a volatile intermediate is formed, that can be utilized to fabricate conductive copper lines for elec. interconnections. By the method called Reactive Transfer Printing (RTP), a pattern of copper (II) formate was printed, and placed adjacent to a second surface; decompn. of the printed pattern led to a transfer of copper to the second substrate. It was found that the yield of the transfer process improved due to presence of several carboxylic acids which are liq. with a high b.p. Furthermore we found that the transport of copper starts at a lower temp. than previously reported, indicating that the first decompn. step of copper formate is related to the catalytic decompn. of formic acid on a copper surface. The findings enable printing of conductive copper patterns onto the interior surface of a glass vessel. [on SciFinder(R)]
Perrin L, Pajor-Swierzy A, Magdassi S, Kamyshny A, Ortega F, Rubio RG. Evaporation of Nanosuspensions on Substrates with Different Hydrophobicity. ACS Appl. Mater. InterfacesACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2018;10 (3) :3082 - 3093.Abstract
Liq. drop evapn. on surfaces is present in many industrial and medical applications, e.g., printed electronics, spraying of pesticides, DNA mapping, etc. Despite this strong interest, a theor. description of the dynamic of the evapn. of complex liq. mixts. and nanosuspensions is still lacking. Indeed, one of the aspects that have not been included in the current theor. descriptions is the competition between the kinetics of evapn. and the adsorption of surfactants and/or particles at the liq./vapor and liq./solid interfaces. Materials formed by an elec. isolating solid on which a patterned conducting layer was formed by the deposits left after drop evapn. have been considered as very promising for building elec. circuits on flexible plastic substrates. In this work, we have done an exhaustive study of the evapn. of nanosuspensions of latex and hydrophobized silver nanoparticles on four substrates of different hydrophobicity. The advancing and receding contact angles as well as the time dependence of the vol. of the droplets have been measured over a broad range of particle concns. Also, mixts. of silver particles and a surfactant, commonly used in industrial printing, have been examd. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics at both the air/liq. and solid/liq. interfaces have been measured. Whereas the latex particles do not adsorb at the solid/liq. and only slightly reduce the surface tension, the silver particles strongly adsorb at both interfaces. The exptl. results of the evapn. process were compared with the predictions of the theory of Semenov et al. (Evapn. of Sessile Water Droplets: Universal Behavior in the Presence of Contact Angle Hysteresis. Colloids Surf. Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 2011, 391 (1-3), 135-144) and showed surprisingly good agreement despite that the theory was developed for pure liqs. The morphol. of the deposits left by the droplets after total evapn. was studied by scanning electronic microscopy, and the effects of the substrate, the particle nature, and their concns. on these patterns are discussed. [on SciFinder(R)]
Zhou Y, Layani M, Wang S, Hu P, Ke Y, Magdassi S, Yi L. Fully Printed Flexible Smart Hybrid Hydrogels. Adv. Funct. Mater.Advanced Functional Materials. 2018;28 (9) :n/a.Abstract
A printable hybrid hydrogel is fabricated by embedding poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) microparticles within a water-rich silica-alumina(Si/Al)-based gel matrix. The hybrid gel holds water content of up to 70 wt%, due to its unique Si/Al matrix. The hybrid hydrogel can respond to both heat and elec. stimuli, and can be directly printed layer-by-layer using a com. 3-dimensional printer, without requiring any curing. The hybrid ink is printed onto a transparent, flexible conductive electrode composed of silver nanoparticles and sustains bending angles of up to 180°, which enables patterning of various flexible devices such as smart windows and a 3D optical waveguide valve. [on SciFinder(R)]
Halevi O, Tan JMR, Lee PS, Magdassi S. Hydrolytically Stable MOF in 3D-Printed Structures. Adv. Sustainable Syst.Advanced Sustainable Systems. 2018;2 (2) :n/a.Abstract
Metal-org. frameworks (MOFs) are a well-developed field of materials, having a high potential for various applications such as gas storage, water purifn., and catalysis. Despite the continuous discoveries of new MOFs, so far there are only a limited no. of industrial applications, partially due to their low chem. stability and limited mech. properties, as well as difficulties in integration within functional devices, Herein, a new approach is presented toward the fabrication of MOF-based devices, utilizing direct 3D printing. By this method, 3D, flexible, and hydrolytically stable MOF-embedded polymeric structures are fabricated. It is found that the adsorption capacity of the 3D-printed MOF is retained, with significantly improved hydrolytic stability of the printed MOFs (copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) compared to the MOF only. It is expected that applying 3D printing technologies, for the fabrication of functional MOF objects such as filters and matrixes for columns and flow reactors, will open the way for utilization of this important class of materials. [on SciFinder(R)]
Liu C, Wang S, Zhou Y, Yang H, Lu Q, Mandler D, Magdassi S, Tay CY, Long Y. Index-tunable anti-reflection coatings: Maximizing solar modulation ability for vanadium dioxide-based smart thermochromic glazing. J. Alloys Compd.Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2018;731 :1197 - 1207.Abstract
V dioxide (VO2) nanoparticles with reversible semiconductor-metal phase transition holds the tremendous potential as a thermochromic material for the energy-saving smart glazing. However, the trade-off between improving the luminous transmittance (Tlum) while sacrificing the solar modulation ability (ΔTsol) hampers its bench-to-market translation. Previous studies of anti-reflection coatings (ARCs) focused primarily on increasing Tlum while neglecting ΔTsol, which is a key energy-saving determinant. The intrinsically low ΔTsol (<16%) is due to the fact that VO2 has a higher refractive index (RI) from 500 nm to 2200 nm wavelength (λ) below its crit. transition temp. (τc), which causes excessive reflection at a lower temp. This study aims to study ARCs with tunable RI (1.47-1.92 at λ = 550 nm) to improve the antireflection effect at a lower temp., thereby maximizing ΔTsol for various VO2 nanosubstrates, e.g. continuous thin films, nanocomposites, and periodic micro-patterning films. The best performing coatings could maximize ΔTsol (from 15.7% to 18.9%) and increase Tlum(avg) (from 39% to 44%) simultaneously, which surpasses the current bench-mark specifications ever reported for ARC-coated VO2 smart glazing. The cytotoxicity analyses evidence that ARCs are feasible to improve the cyto-compatibility of VO2 nanoparticles-based nanocomposites. The presented RI-tunable ARC, which circumvents the complex materials selection and optical design, not only paves the way for practical applications of VO2-based smart windows but also has extensive applications in the field of solar cells, optical lenses, smart display, etc. [on SciFinder(R)]
Yeshua T, Layani M, Dekhter R, Huebner U, Magdassi S, Lewis A. Micrometer to 15 nm Printing of Metallic Inks with Fountain Pen Nanolithography. SmallSmall. 2018;14 (1) :n/a.Abstract
The field of printed electronics is continually trying to reduce the dimensions of the elec. components. Here, a method of printing metallic lines with widths as small as 15 nm and up to a few micrometers using fountain pen nanolithog. (FPN) is shown. The FPN technique is based on a bent nanopipette with at. force feedback that acts similar to a nanopen. The geometry of the nanopen allows for rapid placement accuracy of the printing tip, on any desired location, with the highest of optical sub-micrometer resoln. Using this nanopen, investigations of various inks are undertaken together with instrumental and script-tool development that allows accurate printing of multiple layers. This has led to the printing of conductive lines using inks composed of silver nanoparticles and salt solns. of silver and copper. In addn., it is shown that the method can be applied to substrates of various materials with minimal effect on the dimension of the line. The line widths are varied by using nanopens with different orifices or by tailoring the wetting properties of the ink on the substrate. Metallic interconnections of conducting lines are reported. [on SciFinder(R)]
Agarwala S, Lee JM, Ng WL, Layani M, Yeong WY, Magdassi S. A novel 3D bioprinted flexible and biocompatible hydrogel bioelectronic platform. Biosens. Bioelectron.Biosensors & Bioelectronics. 2018;102 :365 - 371.Abstract
Bioelectronics platforms are gaining widespread attention as they provide a template to study the interactions between biol. species and electronics. Decoding the effect of the elec. signals on the cells and tissues holds the promise for treating the malignant tissue growth, regenerating organs and engineering new-age medical devices. This work is a step forward in this direction, where bio- and electronic materials co-exist on one platform without any need for post processing. We fabricate a freestanding and flexible hydrogel based platform using 3D bioprinting. The fabrication process is simple, easy and provides a flexible route to print materials with preferred shapes, size and spatial orientation. Through the design of interdigitated electrodes and heating coil, the platform can be tailored to print various circuits for different functionalities. The biocompatibility of the printed platform is tested using C2C12 murine myoblasts cell line. Furthermore, normal human dermal fibroblasts (primary cells) are also seeded on the platform to ascertain the compatibility. [on SciFinder(R)]
Li W, Tan JMR, Leow SW, Lie S, Magdassi S, Wong LH. Recent Progress in Solution-Processed Copper-Chalcogenide Thin-Film Solar Cells. Energy Technol. (Weinheim, Ger.)Energy Technology (Weinheim, Germany). 2018;6 (1) :46 - 59.Abstract
Soln.-based thin-film semiconductors offer a promising path for the mass prodn. of low-cost solar cells prepd. at low temps. Thin-film Cu-based chalcogenides such as Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSSe) and Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) hold great promise and have been regarded as viable candidates because of the abundance of their constituent elements and environmentally nontoxic nature. This Review summarizes the recent progress in soln.-processed Cu chalcogenides (CuInSe2, Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2, Cu2ZnSnS4, Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4) for thin-film solar cells, with emphasis on the precursor soln. deposited by spray pyrolysis and spin coating. The general aspects, current status, and recent research highlights are introduced and analyzed in detail. Finally, the challenges and future prospects of these solar cells are also discussed. [on SciFinder(R)]
Wang N, Peh YK, Magdassi S, Long Y. Surface engineering on continuous VO2 thin films to improve thermochromic properties: Top-down acid etching and bottom-up self-patterning. J. Colloid Interface Sci.Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2018;512 :529 - 535.Abstract
Surface engineering is an effective method to improve the thermochromic performance of VO2. In this paper, an acid-etching top down method was proposed to tailor the VO2 surface morphol. from the continuous dense-packed surface to patterned structure, which exhibited the enhanced integrated visible transmittance (Tlum) and the enlarged solar modulating abilities (ΔTsol). Moreover, a self-patterning approach was also illustrated to improve the thermochromic properties. The proposed surface engineering methods represent a facile and cost-effective approach for enhancing thermochromic properties that could promote the application of VO2 thin films in smart windows. [on SciFinder(R)]
Wang S, Owusu KA, Mai L, Ke Y, Zhou Y, Hu P, Magdassi S, Long Y. Vanadium dioxide for energy conservation and energy storage applications: Synthesis and performance improvement. Appl. EnergyApplied Energy. 2018;211 :200 - 217.Abstract
Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is one of the most widely studied inorg. phase change material for energy storage and energy conservation applications. Monoclinic VO2 [VO2(M)] changes from semiconducting phase to metallic rutile phase at near room temp. and the resultant abrupt suppressed IR transmittance at high temp. makes it a potential candidate for thermochromic smart window application to cut the air-condition usage. Meanwhile proper elec. potential, stable structure and good interaction with lithium ions make metastable VO2 [VO2(B)] an attractive material for fabrication of electrodes for batteries and supercapacitors. However, some long-standing issues have plagued its usage. In thermochromic application, high transition temp. (τc), low luminous transmittance (Tlum) and undesirable solar modulation ability (ΔTsol) are the key problems, while in energy storage applications, short cycling lifetime and complex three-dimension microstructure are the major challenges. The common methods to produce VO2 polymorph are phys. vapor deposition (PVD), chem. vapor deposition (CVD), sol-gel synthesis, and hydrothermal method. CVD is an intensively studied method due to its ability to produce uniform films with precise stoichiometry, phase and morphol. control. This paper reviews the various CVD techniques to produce VO2 with controlled phases and the ternary diagram shows the relationship between film stoichiometry and various process conditions. The difference between the various CVD systems are commented and the process window to produce VO2 are tabulated. Some strategies to improve VO2's performance in both energy conservation and energy storage applications are discussed. [on SciFinder(R)]
2017
Armon N, Greenberg E, Layani M, Rosen YS, Magdassi S, Shpaisman H. Continuous Nanoparticle Assembly by a Modulated Photo-Induced Microbubble for Fabrication of Micrometric Conductive Patterns. ACS Appl. Mater. InterfacesACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2017;9 (50) :44214 - 44221.Abstract
The laser-induced microbubble technique (LIMBT) has recently been developed for micro-patterning of various materials. In this method, a laser beam is focused on a dispersion of nanoparticles leading to the formation of a microbubble due to laser heating. Convection currents around the microbubble carry nanoparticles so that they become pinned to the bubble/substrate interface. The major limitation of this technique is that for most materials, a noncontinuous deposition is formed. We show that continuous patterns can be formed by preventing the microbubble from being pinned to the deposited material. This is done by modulating the laser so that the construction and destruction of the microbubble are controlled. When the method is applied to a dispersion of Ag nanoparticles, continuous elec. conductive lines are formed. Furthermore, the line width is narrower than that achieved by the std. nonmodulated LIMBT. This approach can be applied to the direct-write fabrication of micron-size conductive patterns in electronic devices without the use of photolithog. [on SciFinder(R)]
Perrin L, Pajor-Swierzy A, Magdassi S, Kamyshny A, Ortega F, Rubio RG. Evaporation of nanosuspensions on substrates with different hydrophobicity. ACS Appl. Mater. InterfacesACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2017 :Ahead of Print.Abstract
Liq. drop evapn. on surfaces is present in many industrial and medical applications, e.g. printed electronics, spraying of pesticides, DNA mapping, etc. Despite this strong interest, a theor. description of the dynamic of the evapn. of complex liq. mixts. and nanosuspensions is still lacking. Indeed, one of the aspects that have not been included in the current theor. descriptions is the competition between the kinetics of evapn. and the adsorption of surfactants and/or particles at the liq./vapor and liq./solid interfaces. Materials formed by an elec. isolating solid on which a patterned conducting layer formed by the deposits left after drop evapn. have been considered as very promising for building elec. circuits on flexible plastic substrates. In this work an exhaustive study of the evapn. of nanosuspensions of latex and hydrophobized silver nanoparticles on four substrates of different hydrophobicity. The advancing and receding contact angles as well as the time dependence of the vol. of the droplets have been measured over a broad range of particle concn. Also, mixts. of silver particles and a surfactant, commonly used in industrial printing have been examd. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics at both the air/liq. and solid/liq. interfaces have been measured. Whereas the latex particles do not adsorb at the solid/liq. and only slightly reduce the surface tension, the silver particles strongly adsorb at both interfaces. The exptl. results of the evapn. process were compared with the predictions of the theory of Semenov et al. (Evapn. of Sessile Water Droplets: Universal Behavior in Presence of Contact Angle Hysteresis. Colloids Surf. Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 2011, 391 (1-3), 135-144) and showed surprisingly good agreement despite the theory was developed for pure liqs. The morphol. of the deposits left by the droplets after total evapn. was studied by scanning electronic microscopy, and the effect of the substrate, the particles nature and their concns. on these patterns are discussed. [on SciFinder(R)]
Rahmany S, Layani M, Magdassi S, Etgar L. Fully functional semi-transparent perovskite solar cell fabricated in ambient air. Sustainable Energy FuelsSustainable Energy & Fuels. 2017;1 (10) :2120 - 2127.Abstract
Org.-inorg. halide perovskite has excellent properties to function as light harvesters in solar cells due to the possibility to tune its optical properties and to use it as thin film absorber, at a few hundred-nanometer thicknesses. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of perovskite solar cells with controlled transparency, by the mesh assisted deposition process. Sequential fabrication of perovskite was performed in air, wherein a PbI2 grid was formed in the first step, and in the second step, the grid reacted selectively with methylammoniumiodide, resulting in a perovskite grid pattern. The best cells were obtained with a photoanode composed of mesoporous TiO2 with Al2O3 nanoparticles. The resulting semi-transparent perovskite solar cells, including a semi-transparent contact composed of MoO3/Au/MoO3 yielded a power conversion efficiency of 5.5% with an av. transparency of 26% and efficiency of 8% for cells fabricated with a gold contact. [on SciFinder(R)]
Nizri E, Eyal S, Magdassi S.; 2017. Indocyanine green formulations and methods for intraoperative localization of rectal tumors.Abstract
The present invention relates to an imaging compn. for use in localization, e.g., intraoperative localization, of a tumor, in particular a gastrointestinal or colon tumor, e.g., in intraoperative localization of a rectal tumor during laparoscopic anterior resection, which comprises particles each comprising a phospholipid, wherein a near-IR fluorescent probe is non-covalently linked to the particle. [on SciFinder(R)]
Yeshua T, Layani M, Dekhter R, Huebner U, Magdassi S, Lewis A. Micrometer to 15 nm Printing of Metallic Inks with Fountain Pen Nanolithography. SmallSmall. 2017 :Ahead of Print.Abstract
The field of printed electronics is continually trying to reduce the dimensions of the elec. components. Here, a method of printing metallic lines with widths as small as 15 nm and up to a few micrometers using fountain pen nanolithog. (FPN) is shown. The FPN technique is based on a bent nanopipette with at. force feedback that acts similar to a nanopen. The geometry of the nanopen allows for rapid placement accuracy of the printing tip, on any desired location, with the highest of optical sub-micrometer resoln. Using this nanopen, investigations of various inks are undertaken together with instrumental and script-tool development that allows accurate printing of multiple layers. This has led to the printing of conductive lines using inks composed of silver nanoparticles and salt solns. of silver and copper. In addn., it is shown that the method can be applied to substrates of various materials with minimal effect on the dimension of the line. The line widths are varied by using nanopens with different orifices or by tailoring the wetting properties of the ink on the substrate. Metallic interconnections of conducting lines are reported. [on SciFinder(R)]
Binyamin O, Keller G, Frid K, Larush L, Magdassi S, Gabizon R. Continues administration of Nano-PSO significantly increased survival of genetic CJD mice. Neurobiol. Dis.Neurobiology of Disease. 2017;108 :140 - 147.Abstract
We have shown previously that Nano-PSO, a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil, delayed progression of neurodegeneration signs when administered for a designated period of time to TgMHu2ME199K mice, modeling for genetic prion disease. In the present work, we treated these mice with a self-emulsion formulation of Nano-PSO or a parallel Soybean oil formulation from their day of birth until a terminal disease stage. We found that long term Nano-PSO administration resulted in increased survival of TgMHu2ME199K lines by several months. Interestingly, initiation of treatment at day 1 had no clin. advantage over initiation at day 70, however cessation of treatment at 9 mo of age resulted in the rapid loss of the beneficial clin. effect. Pathol. studies revealed that treatment with Nano-PSO resulted in the redn. of GAG accumulation and lipid oxidn., indicating a strong neuroprotective effect. Contrarily, the clin. effect of Nano-PSO did not correlate with redn. in the levels of disease related PrP, the main prion marker. We conclude that long term administration of Nano-PSO is safe and may be effective in the prevention/delay of onset of neurodegenerative conditions such as genetic CJD. [on SciFinder(R)]
Sachyani E, Layani M, Tibi G, Avidan T, Degani A, Magdassi S. Enhanced movement of CNT-based actuators by a three-Layered structure with controlled resistivity. Sens. Actuators, BSensors and Actuators, B: Chemical. 2017;252 :1071 - 1077.Abstract
Due to their unique movement and the lack of motoric parts, flexible actuators have recently been attracting considerable attention in regards to fabrication of soft robots. One of the most known flexible actuators are electro-thermal actuators (ETAs), based on Carbon Nanotubes (CNT). These are bi-layered actuators, triggered elec., and capable of preforming actuation because of the different coeff. of thermal expansions (CTEs) of the layers. The main disadvantage of these actuators is their limited movement ability, therefore, significant efforts are being invested in improving the actuation of CNT-based actuators. A typical CNT-based actuator is composed of a CNT layer on a polyimide substrate. In this study we show how the deflection of the CNT-based actuators was improved by decreasing the resistance of the CNT layer. We also present, for the first time, a novel tri-layer structured actuator that enables extremely large movements, with a record value deflection of 300°, using a simple, low-cost fabrication method without any orientation of the layers. This was achieved by adding a third layer of a photopolymeriazble polymer on top of the two typical bilayer CNT Kapton device. We further modeled the effect of various parameters of the third layer, such as the Young's modulus and the thickness, on the actuation, supporting the exptl. data. [on SciFinder(R)]

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