Publications by Type: Journal Articles

1985
Magdassi S, Frenkel M, Garti N. Correlation between nature of emulsifier and multiple emulsion stability. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm.Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. 1985;11 (4) :791 - 8.Abstract
The effect of emulsifier type on the prepn. and stability of multiple emulsions was studied. The effect on the yield of prepn. and stability with regard to the hydrophile-lipophile balance of the 2nd emulsifier was different for each emulsifier. The best stabilities of the multiple emulsions were obtained when there was a similarity between the hydrophobic part of the emulsifier and the oil phase. [on SciFinder(R)]
1984
Magdassi S, Frenkel M, Garti N. On the factors affecting the yield of preparation and stability of multiple emulsions. J. Dispersion Sci. Technol.Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology. 1984;5 (1) :49 - 59.Abstract
Multiple (water-in-oil-in water) emulsions were prepd. by homogenizing 30 parts 1% NaCl with 70 parts of light mineral oil contg. varying amts. of Brij 92 emulsifier and then adding 20 parts of this primary emulsion to 80 parts of 5% glucose contg. varying amts. of mixts. of Span 20 [1338-39-2] and Tween 80 [9005-65-6] to provide hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) values of 9-15. At Tween-Span emulsifier mixt. concns. of 0.7-1.5% the yield of multiple emulsion was not affected by HLB value; droplet size detd. the yield. At emulsifier concns. >1.5% the yield decreased with increasing concn. at any HLB, related to a continuous decrease in multiple emulsion droplet size. Yields and emulsion stability were max. with an HLB value of 11 at emulsifier concns. >1.5%; at emulsifier mixt. concns. of 0.7-3% stability increased with increasing HLB value. Multiple emulsions are promising pharmaceutical forms. [on SciFinder(R)]
Magdassi S, Frenkel M, Garti N, Kasan R. Multiple emulsions II: HLB shift caused by emulsifier migration to external interface. J. Colloid Interface Sci.Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 1984;97 (2) :374 - 9.Abstract
The optimal HLB for multiple emulsions was investigated and found dependent on the concns. of emulsifiers I and II. The shift of the optimal HLB at different emulsifier concns. is a result of the free emulsifier I which exists in the oil phase of the primary emulsion. A linear correlation between the optimal HLB, the concn. of emulsifier II, and the reciprocal concn. of emulsifier I is obsd. Yields of prepn. of the multiple emulsions were detd. by a chloride titrn. and cond. measurement, without using a dialysis cell. [on SciFinder(R)]
Magdassi S, Garti N. Release of electrolytes in multiple emulsions: coalescence and breakdown or diffusion through oil phase? Colloids Surf.Colloids and Surfaces. 1984;12 (3-4) :367 - 73.Abstract
The release of electrolytes from multiple emulsions can be a result of the instability of the multiple droplets or diffusion through the oil-layer membrane. It was confirmed exptl. that, in the multiple system examd., the diffusion mechanism is the detg. factor in the release pattern of these electrolytes. The release is affected by the hydrophobicity of the electrolyte and by its concn., but not by the viscosity of the internal phase. Therefore, from a practical point of view it is not enough to obtain stable multiple emulsions; limiting and controlling the diffusion has also to be considered. [on SciFinder(R)]
1982
Garti N, Magdassi S, Rubinstein A. A novel method for rapid nondestructive determination of o/w creams stability. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm.Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. 1982;8 (4) :475 - 85.Abstract
A nonconventional method for the evaluation of emulsion stability was developed. The method was valid for viscous emulsions. The technique is based on elec. cond. measurements during nondestructive short-cooling-heating cycles carried out on cosmetic viscous emulsions. Cond. curves were obtained on a recorder, where the second heating cycles were lower and almost parallel to the first heating curves. The bigger the cond. differences between the two heating curves, the lower was the emulsion stability. A relative Stability Index Δ/h, indicating relative change in cond. between 2 cycles was elaborated. This index was useful for detg. optimal required hydrophile-lipophile balance values for required emulsions, optimal amt. of oily phase and emulsifier concn. [on SciFinder(R)]
1981
Garti N, Magdasi S, Rubinstein A. A new method for stability determination of semisolid emulsions, using conductivity measurements. Colloids Surf.Colloids and Surfaces. 1981;3 (3) :221 - 31.Abstract
A new method for rapid evaluation of emulsion stability was developed. The technique is based on elec. cond. measurements during non-destructive short heating-cooling-heating cycles carried out on cosmetic viscous emulsions. The cond. curve obtained during the second heating cycle is lower and almost parallel to the first curve. The bigger the cond. difference between the two heating curves, the lower is the stability of the emulsion. A relative stability index, Δ/h, indicating relative change in cond. between two cycles was elaborated allowing easy comparison of emulsion stabilities having different initial cond. The method was compared to std. stability tests with good correlation. [on SciFinder(R)]

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