The welding and sintering of nanomaterials is relevant, for example, to form electrical contacts between metallic particles in printed electronic devices. Usually the welding of nanoparticles is achieved at high temperatures. Here we find that merging of two different metals, silver and gold nanoparticles, occurs on contact at room temperature. The merging process was investigated by experimental and molecular dynamics simulations. We discovered that the merging of these particles is driven by selective wettability of silver nanoparticles, independent of their size and shape (spheres or rods); silver behaves as a soft matter, whereas gold as a hard surface being wetted and retaining its original morphology. During that process, the silver atoms move towards the surface of the Au nanoparticles and wrap the Au nanoparticles in a pulling up-like process, leading to the wetting of Au nanoparticles.
Vanadium dioxide is the most widely researched thermochromic material with a phase transition temperature (tau(c)) of around 68 degrees C, and its thermochromic performance can be enhanced by adding nanoporosity. Freeze-drying has been employed to fabricate nanostructures with different porosities from 16 to 45% by varying the prefreezing temperature and precursor concentration. The luminous transmittance (T-lum) and solar modulating ability (Delta T-sol) are greatly enhanced as a result of increasing pore size and pore density. The freeze-dried sample with 7.5 mL of H2O2 precursor dip-coated at 300 mm/min gives the best combination of thermochromic properties (T-lum approximate to 50%, Delta T-sol = 14.7%), which Surpasses the best combined thermochromic performance reported to date that we are aware of (T-lum approximate to 41%, Delta T-sol = 14.1%).
Neurodegenerative diseases generate the accumulation of specific misfolded proteins, such as PrPSc prions or A-beta in Alzheimer's diseases, and share common pathological features, like neuronal death and oxidative damage. To test whether reduced oxidation alters disease manifestation, we treated TgMHu2ME199K mice, modeling for genetic prion disease, with Nano-PSO, a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil (PSO). PSO comprises large concentrations of a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid, Punicic acid, among the strongest natural antioxidants. Nano-PSO significantly delayed disease presentation when administered to asymptomatic TgMHu2ME199K mice and postponed disease aggravation in already sick mice. Analysis of brain samples revealed that Nano-PSO treatment did not decrease PrPSc accumulation, but rather reduced lipid oxidation and neuronal loss, indicating a strong neuroprotective effect. We propose that Nano-PSO and alike formulations may be both beneficial and safe enough to be administered for long years to subjects at risk or to those already affected by neurodegenerative conditions.From the Clinical Editor This team of authors report that a nanoformulation of pomegranade seed oil, containing high levels of a strong antioxidant, can delay disease onset in a mouse model of genetic prion diseases, and the formulation also indicates a direct neuroprotective effect.
The introduction of nanostructures has been considered as one of the promising strategies to enhance the thermoelectric performance of bulk materials. In this work, we report a low-cost and facile aqueous solution method to prepare (Sb, Bi)2(Te, Se)3 nanocrystals with controllable composition and morphology by using short ligands containing thiol, acid and amine groups. The control of the morphology of the nanostructures such as nanowires and nanosheets is studied, and both n-type and p-type nanoparticles have been prepared successfully. The results show that the thermal conductivities of these nanocrystals are effectively reduced due to phonon scattering and the thermoelectric performance is affected greatly by the morphology. TE measurements show that the electrical conductivity can be enhanced significantly by using Bi2Te3 nanosheets, and as a result, a maximum thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) of 0.86 is obtained for Bi2Te3 nanosheets at 225 °C. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]Copyright of Journal of Materials Chemistry C is the property of Royal Society of Chemistry and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
The present study investigated the influence of a covalently grown polythiophene (polyTh)-based adlayer on the N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion of chemically modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Poly(thiophen-3-yl-acetic acid) (PTAA), poly(ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), and PTAA/PEDOT co-polymer have been oxidatively grown from the surface of functional MWCNTs afforded corresponding polyThA-, polyThB-, and polyThA/B-MWCNTs, respectively. To study and quantify the MWCNT particle sedimentation behavior of corresponding dispersion systems, an analytical centrifuge system was used. Comparison of dispersion quality of such polyTh-MWCNT composites with both commercial MWCNTs (COM-MWCNTs) and oxidized MWCNTs (polyCOOH-MWCNTs) was established. Analysis of sedimentation results combined with TGA, Elemental Analysis (EA), and Kaiser Test data showed that the COOH groups present on the surface of MWCNTs strongly promote the dispersability much beyond current sedimentation rate observed for COM-MWCNTs, – sedimentation rates were higher than 80% and below 2% for oxidized polyCOOH-MWCNTs. However, regarding MWCNTs coated with polyTh polymers in a core (MWCNT)–shell (polyTh) structure, outer functional groups are not the only influential factor for promoting high dispersion qualities. For these dual phase composite systems, the weight and thickness of polyTh-shell on the composite must be considered.
Pesticides are an essential tool in integrated pest management. Nanopermethrin was prepared by solvent evaporation from an oil-in-water volatile microemulsion. The efficacy of the formulated nanopermethrin was tested against Aedes aegypti and the results compared to those of regular, microparticular permethrin. The 24 h LC.sub.50 for nanopermethrin and permethrin was found to be 0.0063 and 0.0199 mg/L, respectively. The formulated nanopermethrin was tested for toxicity against non-target organisms. Nanopermethrin did not show antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 13534 and 25922) or against Bacillus subtilis. Phytotoxicity studies of nanopermethrin to the seeds of Lycopersicum esculentum, Cucumis sativus, and Zea mays showed no restraint in root length and germination percentage. In the Allium cepa test, regular microparticular permethrin treatment of 0.13 mg/L showed a mitotic index (MI) of 46.8 % and chromosomal aberration of 0.6 %, which was statistically significant (p<0.05) compared to control. No significant differences were observed in 0.13 mg/L nanopermethrin exposure as compared to control (MI of 52.0 and 55.03 % and chromosomal aberration of 0.2 and 0 %, respectively). It was concluded that formulated nanopermethrin can be used as a safe and effectual alternative to commercially available permethrin formulation in agricultural practices.
A simple and cost effective sol–gel process for producing vanadium dioxide thin films was developed via thermolysis of V2O5·nH2O (n≈2) VV precursors prepared by dissolving vanadium powder or V2O5 powder in 30% hydrogen peroxide solutions. After spin-coating on fused silica substrates and annealing at 750°C in vacuum, without any intermediate gas reducing step, the major phase VO2(M, monoclinic phase) was found in both of the films based on V–H2O2 and V2O5–H2O2 precursor, exhibiting large transmittance changes (>40%) in the IR region (>2000nm) and small hysteresis loop width (<5°C) which were comparable to reported epitaxial VO2 films. The two films have similar metal-to-insulator transition temperature τC=62.5°C, lower than the classical value of 68°C for VO2 thin films. In addition, the method enables simple doping, as found for 0.56at.% W-doped VO2 films. This intrinsically simple solution process followed by one-step annealing makes it potentially useful in smart window applications.
Chemical welding of oppositely charged dissimilar metal chalcogenide nanomaterials is reported to produce a quaternary metal chalcogenide. CuSe and In2S3 nanoparticles were synthesized with opposite surface charges by stabilizing with polyacrylic acid and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride. Upon mixing these nanoparticles at room temperature, the electrostatic attraction induced coalescence of these nanoparticles and led to the formation of CuInSxSe1-x nanoparticles.
Pesticides are an essential tool in integrated pest management. Nanopermethrin was prepared by solvent evaporation from an oil-in-water volatile microemulsion. The efficacy of the formulated nanopermethrin was tested against Aedes aegypti and the results compared to those of regular, microparticular permethrin. The 24 h LC50 for nanopermethrin and permethrin was found to be 0.0063 and 0.0199 mg/L, respectively. The formulated nanopermethrin was tested for toxicity against non-target organisms. Nanopermethrin did not show antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 13534 and 25922) or against Bacillus subtilis. Phytotoxicity studies of nanopermethrin to the seeds of Lycopersicum esculentum, Cucumis sativus, and Zea mays showed no restraint in root length and germination percentage. In the Allium cepa test, regular microparticular permethrin treatment of 0.13 mg/L showed a mitotic index (MI) of 46.8 % and chromosomal aberration of 0.6 %, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05) compared to control. No significant differences were observed in 0.13 mg/L nanopermethrin exposure as compared to control (MI of 52.0 and 55.03 % and chromosomal aberration of 0.2 and 0 %, respectively). It was concluded that formulated nanopermethrin can be used as a safe and effectual alternative to commercially available permethrin formulation in agricultural practices.
The main objective of this study was to form nanoparticles of a model hydrophobic drug, celecoxib, from a volatile microemulsion stabilized by a bile salt derivative. Nanoparticles were obtained by conversion of the microemulsion nanodroplets with the dissolved drug into solid nanometric particles. The use of bile salt derivatives as the surfactants for the formation of a microemulsion enabled significantly higher loading of the drug in both the microemulsion and nanoparticles, compared with the native bile salt. In addition, superior stability of the particles was achieved with the bile salt derivatives, and drug crystallization was inhibited. Interestingly, differences in particle stability and crystallization inhibition were observed between two bile salt derivatives differing only by one hydroxyl group on the bile salt backbone, indicating the delicate balance of interactions in the system. For one of the derivatives, upon dispersion of the nanoparticles in water, they spontaneously arranged into well-defined elongated nanometric tubules as detected and attested by cryo-TEM. It was found that the drug present in nanoparticles induces formation of the nanotubes.
Vanadium dioxide is an intriguing candidate for use in intelligent devices such as sensors, magnetic refrigeration and particularly as solar modulating smart window materials. A facile sol-gel route is developed to produce pure VO2 with different nanostructures in a CO2 atmosphere. It was found that the nanoporous structures demonstrated a 16% increase in the luminous transmittance (T-lum) (from 20% to 36%) compared with the vacuum results, while large supercooling effects of up to 30 degrees C have been observed in zero-dimensional structures.
A self-assembled polymer of linear polyethylenimine (LPEI) on indium tin oxide (ITO) is found to stabilize the titanium-doped vanadium oxide film. After modification by LPEI, the oxide film shows good cycling stability, and sustains over 1500 cycles in a three-electrode system, a remarkable improvement compared to that without LPEI modification.
3D conductors are developed by inkjet printing a UV curable ink composed of oil-in-water emulsion combined with a dispersion of silver nanoparticles. Upon UV radiation by LED light the droplets immediately polymerize and form solid structures with embedded silver nanoparticles. The unique composition of the new ink enables sintering of the silver nanoparticles at room temperature by contact with NaCl solution, leading to a conductivity of 1.9 × 106 S m−1 while maintaining the 3D structure. The aspect ratio for photo-polymerized printed lines is more than 10 times larger than that of non-irradiated lines. The emulsion–dispersion new inks are potential materials for 3D fabrication of conductors and other functional materials in printed electronics