Modern printing is based on digitizing information and then representing it on a substrate, such as paper, pixel by pixel. One of the most common methods of digital printing is through inkjet printers. The process of inkjet printing is very complicated, and the ink used must meet certain chemical and physicochemical requirements including those related to storage stability; jetting performance; color management; wetting; and adhesion on substrates. Obviously, these requirements — which represent different scientific disciplines such as colloid chemistry, chemical engineering, and physics — indicate the need for an interdisciplinary book that will cover all aspects of making and utilizing inkjet inks.
This book provides basic and essential information on the important parameters which determine ink performance. It covers not only the conventional use of inkjet technology on graphic applications, but also the extension of this method to print various functional materials, such as the use of conductive inks to print light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and three-dimensional structures. Thus, the book will serve a large community: industrial chemists who deal with ink formulations and synthesis of chemicals for inks; chemical engineers and physicists who deal with the rheological and flow properties of inks; and researchers in academic institutes who seek to develop novel applications based on inkjet printing of new materials.
An electrodeposition process is provided for depositing a film of org. nanoparticles from liq. dispersion on conductive surfaces. A special feature of the nanoparticles is their ability to aggregate as a response to pH change. The diffusing phase was formed by polylactic acid (43.9 mg) dissoln. in acetone (7.5 mL) and this phase was added dropwise to the dispersing phase of water (TDW, 20 mL) contg. Na oleate (22.2 mg) and NaOH (0.3 mg) while applying continuous moderate stirring to give a dispersion of polylactic acid nanoparticles (av. diam. 153 nm). [on SciFinder(R)]
A process is disclosed for low temp. sintering of a pattern on a substrate. The substrate is precoated with a film of said nanoparticles and subsequently treated with said at least one sintering agent. The nanoparticles and at least one sintering agent are pre-formulated in an aq. dispersion, said dispersion being applied onto the substrate and allowed to dry at 5-150°. Nanoparticles comprising at least one metal silver, copper, gold, indium, tin, iron, cobalt, platinum, titanium, titanium oxide, silicon, silicon oxide or any oxide or alloy thereof. Said sintering agent contains chloride, e.g., poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDAC). Said polymer is selected amongst polyimides and polypyrroles. A dispersant is selected from polycarboxylic acid esters, unsatd. polyamides, polycarboxylic acids, alkylamine salts of polycarboxylic acids, polyacrylate dispersants, polyethyleneimine dispersants and polyurethane dispersants. Said substrate is selected from glass, polymeric films, plain paper, porous paper, nonporous paper, coated paper, flexible paper, copier paper, photo paper, glossy photopaper, semi-glossy photopaper, heavy wt. matte paper, billboard paper, vinyl paper, high gloss polymeric films, transparent conductive materials, and plastics: polyethylene terephthalate PET, polyacrylates (PA), polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), polyethersulfone (PES), polyethylene (PE), polyimide (PI), polypropylene (PP) and polycarbonate (PC). [on SciFinder(R)]
A process for prodn. of silica nanocapsules comprises (a) obtaining a nanoemulsion of an aq. phase and an oil phase and at least one surfactant, the nanoemulsion being formed by the process comprising (i) forming an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion of an aq. phase and an oil phase comprising at least one hydrophobic material and at least one silica precursor in the presence of at least one surfactant, (ii) heating the O/W emulsion above its phase inversion temp. (PIT) to obtain a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion, and (iii) cooling the W/O emulsion below the PIT temp., thereby forming a nanoemulsion of oil droplets in water, and (b) inducing interfacial polymn. of the silica precursor around the oil droplets in the nanoemulsions thereby obtaining the silica nanocapsules. The hydrophobic material is selected from a wide range of oils and waxes, and the process may be used to encapsulate drugs, bioactive compds., cosmetic materials, flavoring agents, colorants, and antioxidants. [on SciFinder(R)]
Dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a liquid medium requires separation of the bundles, a process which is usually achieved by sonication for prolonged time, and is suitable for low sample volumes. A rapid and simple process for producing dispersions of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was developed, by using a high pressure homogenization process (HPH). Dispersions of MWCNTs were prepared in aqueous solutions containing ethoxylated octyl phenol, and were compared to dispersions prepared by the conventional sonication method. They were evaluated by rapid measurement of sedimentation rate during centrifugation, and results compared to other evaluation methods. It was found that samples processed by HPH for a short time yielded similar dispersions to those obtained by sonication for prolonged time, and that the first pass through the homogenizer, which takes less than a minute, is the most significant in breaking up the bundle. The process can be used in a continuous mode for large volumes, and is very suitable for large-scale industrial production. Evaluation of the CNT dispersions by centrifugal sedimentation analysis correlates well with other time-consuming methods.
A method for preparation of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble organic materials is presented. By this method, an oil-in-water microemulsion containing a volatile solvent with dissolved model material, propylparaben, undergoes solvent evaporation and conversion into nanoparticles by spray drying. The resulting powder can be easily dispersed in water to give a clear, stable dispersion of nanoparticles with a high loading of propylparaben. By filtration of this dispersion it was found that more than 95wt.% of the dispersed propylparaben is in particles of less than 450nm. X-ray diffraction revealed that propylparaben is present as nanocrystals of 40–70nm. After dispersion of the powder in water, formation of large crystals rapidly occurs. Addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) prevented crystal growth during dispersion of the powder in water. The inhibition of propylparaben crystal growth by PVP was studied by molecular dynamic simulations that addressed the binding of PVP to the propylparaben crystal. A comparison was made between PVP and polyvinylalcohol, which did not display crystal inhibition properties.
The formulation of water dispersible nanopermethrin was investigated for its larvicidal property. Nanopermethrin was prepared using solvent evaporation of oil in water microemulsion, which was obtained by mixing an organic and aqueous phase. The mean particle size of nanodispersion in water was 151±27nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of nanopermethrin showed it was amorphous. Larvicidal studies were carried out against Culex quinquefasciatus and the results were compared with bulk permethrin. The LC50 of nanopermethrin to Cx. quinquefasciatus was 0.117mg/L. The LC50 of bulk permethrin to Cx. quinquefasciatus was 0.715mg/L. Nanopermethrin may be a good choice as a potent and selective larvicide for Cx. quinquefasciatus.
Nanoparticles of novaluron, a water-insoluble insecticide, were prepared by a novel method, based on a direct conversion of O/W microemulsions containing pesticide and volatile solvents, into powders. The conversion of nanoparticles into powder was achieved by rapid evaporation of all the liquids in the microemulsion by spray drying. The microemulsions were evaluated by SAXS, self diffusion NMR, conductivity, and viscosity. The droplet size was approximately 6nm, and the novaluron particle size, after redispersion and evaluation by DLS, was 200±50nm. These particles consisted of aggregates of nanoparticles (30–100nm), as viewed by Cryo-TEM. Electron diffraction and XRD showed that the nanoparticles were amorphous indicating a possible improved bioactivity. The stability of the dispersed nanoparticles was evaluated by following particle size by DLS for a period of time, revealing a slight increase in particle size despite the high value of zeta potential. In vivo experiments carried out with Egyptian cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis larvae indicated that the toxicity of nanoparticles of novaluron resembled that of the commercial formulation.
A new composition of a fully water-dilutable microemulsion system stabilized by natural surfactants is presented as a template for preparation of celecoxib nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are obtained as a dry powder upon rapid conversion of microemulsion droplets with dissolved celecoxib into nanoparticles, followed by evaporation of all the liquid in a spray dryer. The resultant powder is easily re-dispersible in water to form a clear, transparent dispersion. The celecoxib nanoparticles are amorphous and their average size in the dispersion is 17nm, in agreement with cryo-TEM results and concentration measurements after filtration. As a result of the nanometric size and amorphous state, about 10-fold increase in dissolution of the powder was obtained, compared to that for particulate celecoxib in the presence of surfactants.
The electrochemical deposition of organic nanoparticles on conducting surface, such as a coronary stents, in the absence of a polymeric matrix is demonstrated. A novel approach, whereby pH-responsive organic nanoparticles coagulate on a conducting surface as a result of applying positive potential, has been studied. Specifically, latex nanoparticles stabilized by sodium oleate in aqueous solutions were deposited by applying a positive potential that oxidized the water and caused the decrease of pH on various conducting surfaces. It was found that the applied potential, its duration and the concentration of the dispersed nanoparticles govern the deposition characteristics of the coating. This generic approach allows coating objects with complex geometries with thickness ranging from nanometers to microns and therefore can be utilized for coating medical and other devices as well as for controlling drug release.
A solid state synthesis for obtaining nanocrystalline silicon was performed by high temperature reduction of commercial amorphous nanosilica with magnesium powder. The obtained silicon powder contains crystalline silicon phase with lattice spacings characteristic of diamond cubic structure (according to high resolution TEM), and an amorphous phase. In 29Si CP MAS NMR a broad multicomponent peak corresponding to silicon is located at −61.28 to −69.45ppm, i.e. between the peaks characteristic of amorphous and crystalline Si. The powder has displayed red luminescence while excited under UV illumination, due to quantum confinement within the nanocrystals. The silicon nanopowder was successfully dispersed in water containing poly(vinyl alcohol) as a stabilizing agent. The obtained dispersion was also characterized by red photoluminescence with a band maximum at 710nm, thus enabling future functional coating applications.
Sodium reduction of a mixture of tetrabromosilane with imidazole ionic liquids in organic solvents gives dispersions of silicon nanoparticles stabilized by carbene ligands. It was shown that the size of silicon nanoclusters depends on the size of substituents at nitrogen atoms of 1,3-dialkylimidazol-2-ylidenes.
In the past few years, the synthesis of Cu nanoparticles has attracted much attention because of its huge potential for replacing expensive nano silver inks utilized in conductive printing. A major problem in utilizing these copper nanoparticles is their inherent tendency to oxidize in ambient conditions. Recently, there have been several reports presenting various approaches which demonstrate that copper nanoparticles can resist oxidation under ambient conditions, if they are coated by a proper protective layer. This layer may consist of an organic polymer, alkene chains, amorphous carbon or graphenes, or inorganic materials such as silica, or an inert metal. Such coated copper nanoparticles enable achieving high conductivities by direct printing of conductive patterns. These approaches open new possibilities in printed electronics, for example by using copper based inkjet inks to form various devices such as solar cells, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags, and electroluminescence devices. This paper provides a review on the synthesis of copper nanoparticles, mainly by wet chemistry routes, and their utilization in printed electronics.
A new composition of a fully water-dilutable microemulsion system stabilized by natural surfactants is presented as a template for preparation of celecoxib nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are obtained as a dry powder upon rapid conversion of microemulsion droplets with dissolved celecoxib into nanoparticles, followed by evaporation of all the liquid in a spray dryer. The resultant powder is easily re-dispersible in water to form a clear, transparent dispersion. The celecoxib nanoparticles are amorphous and their average size in the dispersion is 17 nm, in agreement with cryo-TEM results and concentration measurements after filtration. As a result of the nanometric size and amorphous state, about 10-fold increase in dissolution of the powder was obtained, compared to that for particulate celecoxib in the presence of surfactants. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A method for preparation of silica nanocapsules is described, by interfacial polymerisation of nanoemulsions which are prepared by the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method. This is a low-energy emulsification technique which does not require any special equipment, such as high-pressure homogenisers. The nanoemulsions were prepared with decane as the oil phase, in which tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was dissolved with an ethoxylated alcohol as the surfactant. The hydrolysis and polymerisation of the TEOS was performed under acidic and basic conditions using HCl and ammonia, respectively. The obtained nanocapsules with an average size between 100 and 300 nm, which were comprised of an oil core (decane) and silica shell, were characterised using dynamic light scattering, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) and by fluorescence of an encapsulated solvatochromic dye. The capsules could be positively or negatively charged by adsorption of ionic surfactants after they were formed.