Impact of matrix deformation on drying granular media

Matrix deformations may occur during drying due to the large pressure jump across air-liquid interfaces, which can displace the solid grains of the medium. Here, deformation is favorable in the left sample due to lower external stress. As a result, air breakthrough occurs at a much shorter time and higher saturation. In addition, surface wetness is preserved for later periods of the drying process when deformations are dominant, maintaining high drying rates and resulting in shorter times.