Despite the abundance of data concerning single-photon double ionization of methanol, the spin state of the emitted electron pair has never been determined. Here we present the ﬁrst evidence that identiﬁes the emitted electron pair spin as overwhelmingly singlet when the dication forms in low-energy conﬁgurations. The experimental data show that while the yield of the CH2O+ + H3+ Coulomb explosion channel is abundant, the metastable methanol dication is largely absent. According to high-level ab initio simulations, these facts indicate that photoionization promptly forms singlet dication states, where they quickly decompose through various channels, with signiﬁcant H3+ yields on the low-lying states. In contrast, if we assume that the initial dication is formed in one of the low-lying triplet states, the ab initio simulations exhibit a metastable dication, contradicting the experimental ﬁndings. Comparing the average simulated branching ratios with the experimental data suggests a \textgreater3 order of magnitude enhancement of the singlet:triplet ratio compared with their respective 1:3 multiplicities.
Generalized Kohn−Sham density functional theory is a popular computational tool for the ground state of extended systems, particularly within range-separated hybrid (RSH) functionals that capture the long-range electronic interaction. Unfortunately, the heavy computational cost of the nonlocal exchange operator in RSH-DFT usually conﬁnes the approach to systems with at most a few hundred electrons. A signiﬁcant reduction in the computational cost is achieved by representing the density matrix with stochastic orbitals and a stochastic decomposition of the Coulomb convolution (J. Phys. Chem. A 2016, 120, 3071). Here, we extend the stochastic RSH approach to excited states within the framework of linear-response generalized Kohn−Sham time-dependent density functional theory (GKS-TDDFT) based on the plane-wave basis. As a validation of the stochastic GKS-TDDFT method, the excitation energies of small molecules N2 and CO are calculated and compared to the deterministic results. The computational eﬃciency of the stochastic method is demonstrated with a two-dimensional MoS2 sheet (∼1500 electrons), whose excitation energy, exciton charge density, and (excited state) geometric relaxation are determined in the absence and presence of a point defect.
We develop a range-separated stochastic resolution of identity (RS-SRI) approach for the four-index electron repulsion integrals, where the larger terms (above a predefined threshold) are treated using a deterministic RI and the remaining terms are treated using a SRI. The approach is implemented within a second-order Green’s function formalism with an improved O(N3) scaling with the size of the basis set, N. Moreover, the RS approach greatly reduces the statistical error compared to the full stochastic version [T. Y. Takeshita et al., J. Chem. Phys. 151, 044114 (2019)], resulting in computational speedups of ground and excited state energies of nearly two orders of magnitude, as demonstrated for hydrogen dimer chains and water clusters.