We propose a hybrid pulse position modulation/ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple-access (PPM/ULP-CDMA) system for ultrafast optical communications. The proposed system employs spectral CDMA encoding/decoding and PPM with very short pulse separation. The statistical properties of the encoded ULP are investigated with a general pulse model, and the performance of the proposed PPM/ULP-CDMA system is investigated. It is shown that we can improve upon the performance of other ULP-CDMA systems, such as those using on-off keying, by employing PPM. It is also shown that we can improve the performance of the proposed system by increasing the effective number of chips, by increasing the number of PPM symbols, and by reducing the ULP duration. The performance analysis shows that the aggregate throughput of the proposed PPM/ULP-CDMA system could be over 1 Tb/s.
The instantaneous response time of parametric optical nonlinearities enable real-time processing of, and interaction between, spatial and temporal optical waveforms. We review the various signal-processing alternatives based on three- and fourwave- mixing arrangements among spatial and temporal information carrying waveforms. The fast response time of the interaction permits information exchange between the time and space domains, providing the ability to correlate and convolve signals from the two domains.We demonstrate the usefulness of real-time signal processing with optical nonlinearities with the following experiments: converting waveforms from the time to space domain as well as from the space to time domain, spectral phase conjugation and spectral inversion of ultrafast waveforms, transmission of the spatial correlation function on an ultrafast waveform, and a suggestion for a single-shot triple autocorrelation measurement.
In response to a comment on our Letter [Opt. Lett. 25, 132 (2000)], we reiterate the distinction between the spectral inversion and the spectral phase conjugation processing techniques. The former achieves time reversal of the complex amplitude waveform, whereas the latter performs time reversal of the real electric field.
Two different realizations of time-reversal experiments of ultrafast waveforms are carried out in real time by use of four-wave mixing arrangements of spectrally decomposed waves. The first, conventional, method is based on phase conjugation of the waveform’s spectrum and achieves time reversal of real amplitude waveforms. The second arrangement of the spectrally decomposed waves spatially inverts the waveform’s spectrum with respect to the optical axis of the processor and achieves true time reversal for complex-amplitude ultrafast waveforms. We compare and contrast these two real-time techniques. 2000 Optical Society of America
A real-time spatial–temporal processor based on cascaded nonlinearities converts space-domain images to time-domain waveforms by the interaction of spectrally decomposed ultrashort pulses and spatially Fourier-transformed images carried by quasi-monochromatic light waves. We use four-wave mixing, achieved by cascaded second-order nonlinearities with type II noncollinear phase matching, for femtosecond-rate processing. We present a detailed analysis of the nonlinear mixing process with waves containing wide temporal and angular bandwidths. The wide bandwidths give rise to phase-mismatch terms in each process of the cascade. We define a complex spatial–temporal filter to characterize the effects of the phase-mismatch terms, modeling the deviations from the ideal system response. New experimental results that support our findings are presented.
All-optical multistage interconnection networks are desirable for overcoming the limitations of optical signal regeneration in switching systems. We present a new implementation of the perfect-shuffle interconnection pattern that is coupled with an all-optical switching element, forming a complete stage of a multistage network. Switching is performed with birefringent calcite crystals and a ferroelectric liquid-crystal device, while interconnection is achieved with a space-semivariant imaging configuration. Cascading the layout allows this system to be used to construct an all-optical multistage interconnection network. An experimental demonstration of the stage is presented.
We present a folded free-space polarization-controlled optical multistage interconnection network (MIN) based on a dilated bypass–exchange switch (DBS) design that uses compact polarization-selective diffractive optical elements (PDOE’s). The folded MIN design has several advantages over that of the traditional transparent MIN, including compactness, spatial filtering of unwanted higher-order diffraction terms leading to an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and ease of alignment. We experimentally characterize a folded 2 × 2 switch, as well as a 4 × 4 and an 8 × 8 folded MIN that we have designed and fabricated. We fabricated an array of off-axis Fresnel lenslet PDOE’s with a 30:1 SNR and used it to construct a 2 × 2 DBS with a measured SNR of 60:1. Using this PDOE array in a 4 × 4 MIN resulted in an increased SNR of 120:1, highlighting the filtering effect of the folded design.
An electronically or optically addressed compact optical bypass–exchange switch is investigated and experimentally demonstrated. The switch is polarization based and consists of a controllable λ/2 plate sandwiched between two polarizing beam displacers. The input and the output signals propagate normal to the switching array, which makes the switch extremely attractive for cascading switching arrays, as found in multistage interconnect networks. A complete, all-optical interconnection network is suggested.