Abstract When multimode optical fibers are perturbed, the data that is transmitted through them is scrambled. This presents a major difficulty for many possible applications, such as multimode fiber based telecommunication and endoscopy. To overcome this challenge, a deep learning approach that generalizes over mechanical perturbations is presented. Using this approach, successful reconstruction of the input images from intensity-only measurements of speckle patterns at the output of a 1.5 m-long randomly perturbed multimode fiber is demonstrated. The model's success is explained by hidden correlations in the speckle of random fiber conformations.
We propose and experimentally demonstrate high-speed operation of random-channel cryptography (RCC) in multimode fibers. RCC is a key generation and distribution method based on the random channel state of a multimode fiber and multi-dimension to single-dimension projection. The reciprocal intensity transmittance of the channel shared between the two legitimate users is used to generate and distribute correlated keys. In previous work, RCC's key rate-distance product was limited by the speed of light. In this work, we show that adding a fast modulator at one end of the channel decouples the key rate and distance, resulting in a significant improvement in the key rate-distance product, limited only by the fiber's modal dispersion. Error-free transmission at a key rate-distance product of 64.7 Mbps 12 km, which is seven orders of magnitude higher than the previous demonstration, was achieved. The proposed method's security arises from a fundamental asymmetry between the eavesdroppers and legitimate users measurement complexity.
Free-space quantum key distribution is gaining increasing interest as a leading platform for long range quantum communication. However, the sensitivity of quantum correlations to scattering induced by turbulent atmospheric links limits the performance of such systems. Recently, a method for compensating for the scattering of entangled photons was demonstrated, allowing for real-time optimization of their quantum correlations. In this Letter, we demonstrate the use of wavefront shaping for compensating for the scattering of non-collinear and non-degenerate entangled photons. These results demonstrate the applicability of wavefront shaping schemes for protocols utilizing the large bandwidth and emission angle of the entangled photons.
Quantum technologies hold great promise for revolutionizing photonic applications such as cryptography. Yet, their implementation in real-world scenarios is challenging, mostly because of sensitivity of quantum correlations to scattering. Recent developments in optimizing the shape of single photons introduce new ways to control entangled photons. Nevertheless, shaping single photons in real time remains a challenge due to the weak associated signals, which are too noisy for optimization processes. Here, we overcome this challenge and control scattering of entangled photons by shaping the classical laser beam that stimulates their creation. We discover that because the classical beam and the entangled photons follow the same path, the strong classical signal can be used for optimizing the weak quantum signal. We show that this approach can increase the length of free-space turbulent quantum links by up to two orders of magnitude, opening the door for using wavefront shaping for quantum communications.
Over the past decade, Airy beams have been the subject of extensive research, leading to new physical insights and various applications. In this Letter, we extend the concept of Airy beams to the quantum domain. We generate entangled photons in a superposition of two-photon Airy states via spontaneous parametric down conversion, pumped by a classical Airy beam. We show that the entangled Airy photons preserve the intriguing properties of classical Airy beams, such as free acceleration and reduced diffraction, while exhibiting non-classical anti-correlations. Finally, we discuss the advantages offered by entangled Airy photons for high-dimensional free-space quantum communications.
Speckles commonly satisfy Rayleigh statistics. However, in many applications, non-Rayleigh speckles with customized intensity statistics are desirable. Here, we present a general method for customizing the intensity statistics of speckle patterns on a target plane. By judiciously modulating the phase front of a monochromatic laser beam, we experimentally generate speckle patterns with arbitrarily tailored intensity probability density functions. Relative to Rayleigh speckles, our customized speckles exhibit radically different topologies yet maintain the same spatial correlation length. The customized speckles are fully developed, ergodic, and stationary&\#x2013;with circular non-Gaussian statistics for the complex field. Propagating away from the target plane, the customized speckles revert back to Rayleigh speckles. This work provides a versatile framework for tailoring speckle patterns with varied applications in microscopy, imaging, and optical manipulation.
We present experimental and numerical studies on principal modes in a multimode fiber with mode coupling. By applying external stress to the fiber and gradually adjusting the stress, we have realized a transition from weak to strong mode coupling, which corresponds to the transition from single scattering to multiple scattering in mode space. Our experiments show that principal modes have distinct spatial and spectral characteristic in the weak and strong mode coupling regimes. We also investigate the bandwidth of the principal modes, in particular, the dependence of the bandwidth on the delay time, and the effects of the mode-dependent loss. By analyzing the path-length distributions, we discover two distinct mechanisms that are responsible for the bandwidth of principal modes in weak and strong mode coupling regimes. Their interplay leads to a non-monotonic transition of the average principal mode bandwidth from weak to strong mode coupling. Taking into account the mode-dependent loss in the fiber, our numerical results are in qualitative agreement with our experimental observations. Our study paves the way for exploring potential applications of principal modes in communication, imaging and spectroscopy.
We designed a high-resolution compact spectrometer based on an evanescently coupled multimode spiral waveguide. Interference between the modes in the waveguide forms a wavelength-dependent speckle pattern, which is used as a fingerprint to identify the input wavelength after calibration. Evanescent coupling between neighboring arms of the spiral results in a non-resonant broadband enhancement of the spectral resolution. Experimentally, we demonstrated a resolution of 0.01 nm at a wavelength of 1520 nm using a 250 &\#x03BC;m radius spiral structure. Spectra containing 40 independent spectral channels are recovered simultaneously, and the operation bandwidth is significantly increased by applying compressive sensing to sparse spectra reconstruction. The ability to achieve such high resolution with low loss in a compact footprint is expected to have a significant impact on low-cost portable sensing and to add functionality to lab-on-a-chip systems.