A. Gumennik, Y. Kurzweil-Segev, and A. J. Agranat, “Electrooptical effects in glass forming liquids of dipolar nano-clusters embedded in a paraelectric environment,” Optical Materials Express, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 803-815, 2011.Abstract
Studies of the electrooptic effect in potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) and Li doped KTN in the vicinity of the ferroelectric phase transition are reported. It was observed that in KTN the standard electrooptic behavior is accompanied by electrically induced depolarization of the light traversing through the crystal. This behavior is attributed to the influence of the fluctuating dipolar clusters that are formed in KTN above the ferroelectric phase transition due to the emergence of the Nb ions out of the center of inversion of the unit cell. It was shown in addition that this behavior is inhibited in Li doped KTN, which enables exploiting the large electrooptic effect in these crystals.
H. Siman-Tov, A. Gumennik, H. Ilan, N. Mazursky, and A. J. Agranat, “Construction of conducting and photoconducting 3D structures with submicron resolution in electrooptical substrates,” Applied Physics A - Materials Science & Processing , vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 45-48, 2011. Publisher's VersionAbstract
It is shown that the implantation of protons in electrooptical substrates enables the construction of 3D structures with submicron features that are both conductive and photoconductive embedded in amorphized regions that possess reduced refractive index. The conductivity and photoconductivity are attributed to the transformation of the material into a degenerate semiconductor due to the formation of high concentration of OH.sup.- complexes that are created by the bonding of the implanted H.sup.+ ions to the O.sup.-2 ions of the lattice. It is argued that these results extend significantly the capabilities of integrated photonic circuits and devices fabricated by Refractive Index Engineering by ion implantations.