Dramatic increase in NaCl consumption lead to sodium intake beyond health guidelines. KCl substitution helps reduce sodium intake but results in a bitter-metallic off-taste. Two disaccharides, trehalose and sucrose, were tested in order to untangle the chemical (increase in effective concentraion of KCl due to sugar addition) from the sensory effects. The bitter-metallic taste of KCl was reduced by these sugars, while saltiness was enhanced or unaltered. The perceived sweetness of sugar, regardless of its type and concentration, was an important factor in KCl taste modulation. Though KCl was previously shown to increase the chemical activity of trehalose but not of sucrose, we found that it suppressed the perceived sweetness of both sugars. Therefore, sensory integration was the dominant factor in the tested KCl-sugar combinations.
Under environmental duress, many organisms accumulate large amounts of osmolytes – molecularly small organic solutes. Osmolytes are known to counteract stress, driving proteins to their compact native states by their exclusion from protein surfaces. In contrast, the effect of osmolytes on lipid membranes is poorly understood and widely debated. Many fully membrane-permeable osmolytes exert an apparent attractive force between lipid membranes, yet all proposed models fail to fully account for the origin of this force. We follow the quintessential osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and its interaction with dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes in aqueous solution. We find that by partitioning away from the inter-bilayer space, TMAO pushes adjacent membranes closer together. Experiments and simulations further show that the partitioning of TMAO away from the volume between bilayers stems from its exclusion from the lipid–water interface, similar to the mechanism of protein stabilization by osmolytes. We extend our analysis to show that the preferential interaction of other physiologically relevant solutes (including sugars and DMSO) also correlates with their effect on membrane bilayer interactions. Our study resolves a long-standing puzzle, explaining how osmolytes can increase membrane– membrane attraction or repulsion depending on their preferential interactions with lipids.