(TD) Density functional theory

Stein, T. ; Kronik, L. ; Baer, R. Prediction of charge-transfer excitations in coumarin-based dyes using a range-separated functional tuned from first principles. J. Chem. Phys. 2009, 131, 244119–5.Abstract

We study the description of charge-transfer excitations in a series of coumarin-based donor-bridge-acceptor dyes. We show that excellent predictive power for the excitation energies and oscillator strengths in these systems is obtained by using a range-separated hybrid functional within the generalized Kohn–Sham approach to time-dependent density functional theory. Key to this success is a step for tuning the range separation parameter from first principles. We explore different methods for this tuning step, which are variants of a recently suggested approach for charge-transfer excitations [T. Stein et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 2818 (2009)]. We assess the quality of prediction by comparing to excitation energies previously published for the same systems using the approximate coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CC2) method.

Stein, T. ; Kronik, L. ; Baer, R. Reliable Prediction of Charge Transfer Excitations in Molecular Complexes Using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 2818–2820.Abstract

We show how charge transfer excitations at molecular complexes can be calculated quantitatively using time-dependent density functional theory. Predictive power is obtained from range-separated hybrid functionals using nonempirical tuning of the range-splitting parameter. Excellent performance of this approach is obtained for a series of complexes composed of various aromatic donors and the tetracyanoethytene acceptor, paving the way to systematic nonempirical quantitative studies of charge-transfer excitations in real systems.

Salzner, U. ; Baer, R. Koopmans' springs to life. J. Chem. Phys. 2009, 131, 231101.Abstract

The meaning of orbital energies (OOEs) in Kohn–Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) is subject to a longstanding controversy. In local, semilocal, and hybrid density functionals (DFs) a Koopmans’ approach, where OOEs approximate negative ionization potentials (IPs), is unreliable. We discuss a methodology based on the Baer–Neuhauser–Livshits range-separated hybrid DFs for which Koopmans’ approach “springs to life.” The OOEs are remarkably close to the negative IPs with typical deviances of ±0.3 eV down to IPs of 30 eV, as demonstrated on several molecules. An essential component is the ab initio motivated range-parameter tuning procedure, forcing the highest OOE to be exactly equal to the negative first IP. We develop a theory for the curvature of the energy as a function of fractional occupation numbers to explain some of the results.

Livshits, E. ; Baer, R. ; Kosloff, R. Deleterious Effects of Long-Range Self-Repulsion on the Density Functional Description of O-2 Sticking on Aluminum. J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 7521–7527. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Density functional theory (DFT) with semilocal functionals such as the local-density and generalized gradients approximations predicts that the dissociative adsorption of oxygen on Al (111) goes through without a barrier in stark contradiction to experimental findings. This problem motivated our study of the reaction of oxygen colliding with a small aluminum cluster Al-5. We found semilocal functionals predict a minute barrier to sticking, associated with smeared long-range charge transfer from the metal to the oxygen. Hybrid B3LYP predicts a larger barrier while the range-separated the Baer-Neuhauser-Livshits (BNL, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2007, 9, 2932.) functional finds a more prominent barrier. BNL predicts short-ranged and more abrupt charge transfer from the surface to the oxygen. We conclude that spurious self-repulsion inherent in semilocal functionals causes early electron-transfer, long-range attraction toward the surface and low reaction barriers for these systems. The results indicate that the missing DFT barrier for O-2 sticking on Al (111) may be due to Spurious self-repulsion.

Eisenberg, H. R. ; Baer, R. A new generalized Kohn-Sham method for fundamental band-gaps in solids. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2009, 11, 4674–4680. Publisher's VersionAbstract

We developed a method for calculating the ground-state properties and fundamental band-gaps of solids, using a generalized Kohn-Sham approach combining a local density approximation (LDA) functional with a long-range explicit exchange orbital functional. We found that when the range parameter is selected according to the formula gamma = A/(epsilon(infinity) (epsilon) over tilde) where epsilon(infinity) is the optical dielectric constant of the solid and (epsilon) over tilde = 0.84 and A = 0.216 a(0)(-1), predictions of the fundamental band-gap close to the experimental values are obtained for a variety of solids of different types. For most solids the range parameter g is small (i.e. explicit exchange is needed only at long distances) so the predicted values for lattice constants and bulk moduli are similar to those based on conventional LDA calculations. Preliminary calculations on silicon give a general band structure in good agreement with experiment.

Baer, R. Prevalence of the adiabatic exchange-correlation potential approximation in time-dependent density functional theory. Theochem-Journal of Molecular Structure 2009, 914, 19–21.Abstract

Time-dependent (TD) density functional theory (TDDFT) promises a numerically tractable account of many-body electron dynamics provided good simple approximations are developed for the exchange-correlation (XC) potential functional (XCPF). The theory is usually applied within the adiabatic XCPF approximation, appropriate for slowly varying TD driving fields. As the frequency and strength of these fields grows, it is widely held that memory effects kick in and the eligibility of the adiabatic XCPF approximation deteriorates irreversibly. We point out, however, that when a finite system of electrons in its ground-state is gradually exposed to a very a high-frequency and eventually ultra-strong homogeneous electric field, the adiabatic XCPF approximation is in fact rigorously applicable. This result shows that adiabatic XCPF has a larger scope of applicability than previously suspected and in this sense is compliant with recent numerical findings by Thiele et al. [M. Thiele, E.K.U. Gross, S. Kümmel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 153004] of negligible memory effects in strong-field double ionization.

Andzelm, J. ; Rinderspacher, B. C. ; Rawlett, A. ; Dougherty, J. ; Baer, R. ; Govind, N. Performance of DFT Methods in the Calculation of Optical Spectra of TCF-Chromophores. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2009, 5 2835–2846.Abstract

We present electronic structure calculations of the ultraviolet/visible (UV?vis) spectra of highly active push?pull chromophores containing the tricyanofuran (TCF) acceptor group. In particular, we have applied the recently developed long-range corrected Baer-Neuhauser-Livshits (BNL) exchange-correlation functional. The performance of this functional compares favorably with other density functional theory (DFT) approaches, including the CAM-B3LYP functional. The accuracy of UV-vis results for these molecules is best at low values of attenuation parameters (\gamma) for both BNL and CAM-B3LYP functionals. The optimal value of \gamma is different for the charge-transfer (CT) and valence excitations. The BNL and PBE0 exchange correlation functionals capture the CT states particularly well, while the ???* excitations are less accurate and system dependent. Chromophore conformations, which considerably affect the molecular hyperpolarizability, do not significantly influence the UV?vis spectra on average. As expected, the color of chromophores is a sensitive function of modifications to its conjugated framework and is not significantly affected by increasing aliphatic chain length linking a chromophore to a polymer. For selected push?pull aryl-chromophores, we find a significant dependence of absorption spectra on the strength of diphenylaminophenyl donors.

Kurzweil, Y. ; Baer, R. Adapting approximate-memory potentials for time-dependent density functional theory. Phys. Rev. B 2008, 77, 085121.Abstract

Frequency dependent exchange-correlation kernels for time-dependent density functional theory can be used to construct approximate exchange-correlation potentials. The resulting potentials are usually not translationally covariant nor do they obey the so-called zero-force condition. These two basic symmetry requirements are essential for using the potentials in actual applications (even in the linear regime). We provide two pragmatic methods for fully imposing these conditions for both linear and nonlinear regimes. As an example, we take the Gross and Kohn frequency dependent XC functional [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2850 (1985)], correct it, and numerically test it on a sodium metal cluster. Violation of the basic symmetries causes instabilities or spurious low frequency modes.

Baer, R. On the mapping of time-dependent densities onto potentials in quantum mechanics. J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 128, 044103.Abstract

The mapping of time-dependent densities on potentials in systems of identical quantum mechanical particles is examined. This mapping is of significance ever since Runge and Gross [Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 997 (1984)] established its uniqueness, forming the theoretical basis for time-dependent density functional theory. Beyond uniqueness there are two important issues: existence, often called v-representability, and stability. We show that v-representability for localized densities in turn-on situations is not assured and we give a simple example of nonexistence. As for stability, we discuss an inversion procedure and by computing its Lyapunov exponents we demonstrate that the mapping is unstable with respect to fluctuations in the initial state. We argue that such instabilities will plague any inversion procedure.

Livshits, E. ; Baer, R. A well-tempered density functional theory of electrons in molecules. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2007, 9 2932–2941. Publisher's VersionAbstract

This Invited Article reports extensions of a recently developed approach to density functional theory with correct long-range behavior (R. Baer and D. Neuhauser, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2005, 94, 043002). The central quantities are a splitting functional \gamma[n] and a complementary exchange-correlation functional E_\gammaXC[n]. We give a practical method for determining the value of \gamma in molecules, assuming an approximation for E_\gammaXC is given. The resulting theory shows good ability to reproduce the ionization potentials for various molecules. However it is not of sufficient accuracy for forming a satisfactory framework for studying molecular properties. A somewhat different approach is then adopted, which depends on a density-independent \gamma and an additional parameter w eliminating part of the local exchange functional. The values of these two parameters are obtained by best-fitting to experimental atomization energies and bond lengths of the molecules in the G2(1) database. The optimized values are \gamma = 0.5 a_0^-1 and w = 0.1. We then examine the performance of this slightly semi-empirical functional for a variety of molecular properties, comparing to related works and experiment. We show that this approach can be used for describing in a satisfactory manner a broad range of molecular properties, be they static or dynamic. Most satisfactory is the ability to describe valence, Rydberg and inter-molecular charge-transfer excitations.

Kurzweil, Y. ; Baer, R. Quantum memory effects on the dynamics of electrons in gold clusters. Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics) 2006, 73, 075413.Abstract

Electron dynamics in metallic clusters are examined using a time-dependent density functional theory that includes a “memory term,” i.e., attempts to describe temporal nonlocal correlations. Using the Iwamoto, Gross, and Kohn exchange-correlation XC kernel, we construct a translationally invariant memory action from which an XC potential is derived that is translationally covariant and exerts zero net force on the electrons. An efficient and stable numerical method to solve the resulting Kohn-Sham equations is presented. Using this framework, we study memory effects on electron dynamics in spherical jellium gold clusters. We find memory significantly broadens the surface plasmon absorption line, yet considerably less than measured in real gold clusters, attributed to the inadequacy of the jellium model. Memory effects on nonlinear spectroscopy are studied as well: a real-time pump-probe setup is used to study the temporal decay profile of the plasmon, finding a fast decay followed by slower tail; and in high harmonic generation, we show that memory narrows and redshifts emission lines.

Livshits, E. ; Baer, R. Time-dependent density-functional studies of the D2 Coulomb explosion. J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 8443–8450. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Real-time first principle simulations are presented of the D2 Coulomb explosion dynamics detonated by exposure to very intense few-cycle laser pulse. Three approximate functionals within the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) functionals are examined for describing the electron dynamics, including time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory. Nuclei are treated classically with quantum corrections. The calculated results are sensitive to the underlying electronic structure theory, showing too narrow kinetic energy distribution peaked at too high kinetic energy when compared with recent experimental results (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2003, 91, 093002). Experiment also shows a low energy peak which is not seen in the present calculation. We conclude that while Ehrenfest-adiabatic-TDDFT can qualitatively account for the dynamics, it requires further development, probably beyond the adiabatic approximation, to be quantitative.

Baer, R. ; Livshits, E. ; Neuhauser, D. Avoiding self-repulsion in density functional description of biased molecular junctions. Chem. Phys. 2006, 329, 266–275.Abstract

We examine the effects of self-repulsion on the predictions of charge distribution in biased molecular junctions by the local density functional theory methods. This is done using a functional with explicit long-range exchange term effects [R. Baer, D. Neuhauser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 043002]. We discuss in detail the new density functional, pointing out some of the remaining difficulties in the theory. We find that in weakly coupled junctions (the typical molecular electronics case) local-density functionals fail to describe correctly the charge distribution in the intermediate bias regime. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Neuhauser, D. ; Baer, R. Efficient linear-response method circumventing the exchange-correlation kernel: Theory for molecular conductance under finite bias. The Journal of chemical physics 2005, 123, 204105.Abstract

An iterative approach for calculating the frequency domain linear response of molecular systems within time-dependent density-functional theory is presented. The method completely avoids computing the exchange-correlation kernel which is typically the most expensive step for large systems. In particular, virtual orbitals are not needed. This approach may be useful for treating the response of large systems. We give an outline of the theory and a demonstration on a jellium model of an elliptic gold cluster. A detailed theory is appended discussing the computation of conductance and ac impedance of molecular junctions under bias.

Kurzweil, Y. ; Baer, R. Generic Galilean-invariant exchange-correlation functionals with quantum memory. Phys. Rev. B 2005, 72, 035106.Abstract

Today, most application of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) use adiabatic exchange- correlation (XC) potentials that do not take into account non-local temporal effects. Incorporating such "memory" terms into XC potentials is complicated by the constraint that the derived force and torque densities must integrate to zero at every instance. This requirement can be met by deriving the potentials from an XC action that is Galilean in-variant (GI). We develop a class of simple but flexible forms for an action that respect these constraints. The basic idea is to formulate the action in terms of the Eularian-Lagrangian transformation (ELT) metric tensor, which is itself GI. The general form of the XC potentials in this class is then derived and the linear response limit is derived as well.

Baer, R. ; Neuhauser, D. A density functional theory with correct long-range asymptotic behavior. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2005, 94, 043002.Abstract

We derive an exact representation of the exchange-correlation energy within density functional theory (DFT) which spawns a class of approximations leading to correct long-range asymptotic behavior. Using a simple approximation, we develop an electronic structure theory that combines a new local correlation energy (based on Monte Carlo calculations applied to the homogeneous electron gas) and a combination of local and explicit long-ranged exchange. The theory is applied to several first-row atoms and diatomic molecules where encouraging results are obtained: good description of the chemical bond at the same time allowing for bound anions, reasonably accurate affinity energies, and correct polarizability of an elongated hydrogen chain. Further stringent tests of DFT are passed, concerning ionization potential and charge distribution under large bias

Baer, R. ; Kurzweil, Y. ; Cederbaum, L. S. Time-dependent density functional theory for nonadiabatic processes. Isr. J. Chem. 2005, 45, 161–170.Abstract

Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is a general and robust method allowing the study of electron dynamics whether induced by nuclear motion or by external fields. We give a brief overview of the theory and some numerical methods together with recent applications stressing the generality and wide applicability of the method. We also discuss recent attempts to extend the present TDDFT by incorporating memory terms into the exchange correlation potentials.

Kurzweil, Y. ; Baer, R. Time-dependent exchange-correlation current density functionals with memory. J. Chem. Phys. 2004, 121, 8731–8741.Abstract

Most present applications of time-dependent density functional theory use adiabatic functionals, i.e. the effective potential at time t is determined solely by the density at the same time. This paper discusses a method that aims to go beyond this approximation, by incorporating "memory" effects: the potential will depend not only on present behavior but also on the past. In order to ensure the derived potentials are causal, we formulate the action on the Keldysh contour for electrons in electromagnetic fields, from which we derive suitable Kohn-Sham equations. The exchange correlation action is now a functional of the electron density and velocity field. A specific action functional is constructed which is Galilean invariant and yields a causal vector potential term to the Kohn-Sham equations that incorporates causal memory effects. We show explicitly that the exchange-correlation Lorentz force is zero. The potential is consistent with known dynamical properties of the homogeneous electron gas (in the linear response limit).

Baer, R. ; Seideman, T. ; Ilani, S. ; Neuhauser, D. Ab initio study of the alternating current impedance of a molecular junction. J. Chem. Phys. 2004, 120, 3387–3396.Abstract

The small-bias conductance of the C-6 molecule, stretched between two metallic leads, is studied using time-dependent density functional theory within the adiabatic local density approximation. The leads are modeled by jellium slabs, the electronic density and the current density are described on a grid, whereas the core electrons and the highly oscillating valence orbitals are approximated using standard norm-conserving pseudopotentials. The jellium leads are supplemented by a complex absorbing potential that serves to absorb charge reaching the edge of the electrodes and hence mimic irreversible flow into the macroscopic metal. The system is rapidly exposed to a ramp potential directed along the C-6 axis, which gives rise to the onset of charge and current oscillations. As time progresses, a fast redistribution of the molecular charge is observed, which translates into a direct current response. Accompanying the dc signal, alternating current fluctuations of charge and currents within the molecule and the metallic leads are observed. These form the complex impedance of the molecule and are especially strong at the plasmon frequency of the leads and the lowest excitation peak of C-6. We study the molecular conductance in two limits: the strong coupling limit, where the edge atoms of the chain are submerged in the jellium and the weak coupling case, where the carbon atoms and the leads do not overlap spatially. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

Baer, R. ; Neuhauser, D. ; Weiss, S. Enhanced absorption induced by a metallic nanoshell. Nano Lett. 2004, 4 85–88.Abstract

Nanoshells have been previously shown to have tunable absorption frequencies that are dependent on the ratio of their inner and outer radii. Inspired by this, we ask: can a nanoshell increase the absorption of a small core system embedded within it? A theoretical model is constructed to answer this question. A core, composed of a “jellium” ball of the density of gold is embedded within a jellium nanoshell of nanometric diameter. The shell plasmon frequency is tuned to the core absorption line. A calculation based the time-dependent density functional theory was performed showing a 10 fold increase in core excitation yield.