We consider an arbitrary quantum mechanical system, initially in its ground-state, exposed to a time-dependent electromagnetic pulse with a carrier frequency ω0 and a slowly varying envelope of finite duration. By working out a solution to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in the high-ω0 limit, we find that, to the leading order in ω−10, a perfect self-cancellation of the system’s linear response occurs as the pulse switches off. Surprisingly, the system’s observables are, nonetheless, describable in terms of a combination of its linear density response function and nonlinear functions of the electric field. An analysis of a jellium slab and jellium sphere models reveals a very high surface sensitivity of the considered setup, producing a richer excitation spectrum than accessible within the conventional linear response regime. On this basis, we propose a new spectroscopic technique, which we provisionally name the Nonlinear High-Frequency Pulsed Spectroscopy (NLHFPS). Combining the advantages of the extraordinary surface sensitivity, the absence of constraints by the traditional dipole selection rules, and the clarity of theoretical interpretation utilizing the linear response time-dependent density functional theory, NLHFPS has a potential to evolve into a powerful characterization method for nanoscience and nanotechnology
Stochastic density functional theory (sDFT) is becoming a valuable tool for studying ground-state properties of extended materials. The computational complexity of describing the Kohn–Sham orbitals is replaced by introducing a set of random (stochastic) orbitals leading to linear and often sub-linear scaling of certain ground-state observables at the account of introducing a statistical error. Schemes to reduce the noise are essential, for example, for determining the structure using the forces obtained from sDFT. Recently, we have introduced two embedding schemes to mitigate the statistical fluctuations in the electron density and resultant forces on the nuclei. Both techniques were based on fragmenting the system either in real space or slicing the occupied space into energy windows, allowing for a significant reduction in the statistical fluctuations. For chemical accuracy, further reduction of the noise is required, which could√be achieved by increasing the number of stochastic orbitals. However, the convergence is relatively slow as the statistical error scales as 1/ Nχ according to the central limit theorem, where Nχ is the number of random orbitals. In this paper, we combined the embedding schemes mentioned above and introduced a new approach that builds on overlapped fragments and energy windows. The new approach significantly lowers the noise for ground-state properties, such as the electron density, total energy, and forces on the nuclei, as demonstrated for a G-center in bulk silicon.
We develop a range-separated stochastic resolution of identity (RS-SRI) approach for the four-index electron repulsion integrals, where the larger terms (above a predefined threshold) are treated using a deterministic RI and the remaining terms are treated using a SRI. The approach is implemented within a second-order Green’s function formalism with an improved O(N3) scaling with the size of the basis set, N. Moreover, the RS approach greatly reduces the statistical error compared to the full stochastic version [T. Y. Takeshita et al., J. Chem. Phys. 151, 044114 (2019)], resulting in computational speedups of ground and excited state energies of nearly two orders of magnitude, as demonstrated for hydrogen dimer chains and water clusters.
We develop a stochastic resolution of identity approach to the real-time second-order Green’s function (real-time sRI-GF2) theory, extending our recent work for imaginary-time Matsubara Green’s function [Takeshita et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2019, 151, 044114]. The approach provides a framework to obtain the quasi-particle spectra across a wide range of frequencies and predicts ionization potentials and electron affinities. To assess the accuracy of the real-time sRI-GF2, we study a series of molecules and compare our results to experiments as well as to a many-body perturbation approach based on the GW approximation, where we find that the real-time sRI-GF2 is as accurate as self-consistent GW. The stochastic formulation reduces the formal computatinal scaling from O(Ne5) down to O(Ne3) where Ne is the number of electrons. This is illustrated for a chain of hydrogen dimers, where we observe a slightly lower than cubic scaling for systems containing up to Ne ≈ 1000 electrons.
Over this past decade, we combined the idea of stochastic resolution of identity with a variety of electronic structure methods. In our stochastic Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) method, the density is an average over multiple stochastic samples, with stochastic errors that decrease as the inverse square root of the number of sampling orbitals. Here, we develop a stochastic embedding density functional theory method (se-DFT) that selectively reduces the stochastic error (specifically on the forces) for a selected subsystem(s). The motivation, similar to that of other quantum embedding methods, is that for many systems of practical interest, the properties are often determined by only a small subsystem. In stochastic embedding DFT, two sets of orbitals are used: a deterministic one associated with the embedded subspace and the rest, which is described by a stochastic set. The method agrees exactly with deterministic calculations in the limit of a large number of stochastic samples. We apply se-DFT to study a p-nitroaniline molecule in water, where the statistical errors in the forces on the system (the p-nitroaniline molecule) are reduced by an order of magnitude compared with nonembedding stochastic DFT.
Nonmonotonic bending-induced changes of fundamental band gaps and quasiparticle energies are observed for realistic nanoscale phosphorene nanosheets. Calculations using stochastic many-body perturbation theory show that even slight curvature causes significant changes in the electronic properties. For small bending radii (\textless4 nm) the band gap changes from direct to indirect. The response of phosphorene to deformation is strongly anisotropic (different for zigzag vs armchair bending) due to an interplay of exchange and correlation effects. Overall, our results show that fundamental band gaps of phosphorene sheets can be manipulated by as much as 0.7 eV depending on the bending direction.
Single-photon Coulomb explosion of methanol is instigated using the broad bandwidth pulse achieved through high-order harmonics generation. Using 3D coincidence fragment imaging of one molecule at a time, the kinetic energy release (KER) and angular distributions of the products are measured in different Coulomb explosion (CE) channels. Two-body CE channels breaking either the C–O or the C–H bonds are described as well as a proton migration channel forming H2O+, which is shown to exhibit higher KER. The results are compared to intense-field Coulomb explosion measurements in the literature. The interpretation of broad bandwidth single-photon CE data is discussed and supported by ab initio calculations of the predominant C–O bond breaking CE channel. We discuss the importance of these findings for achieving time resolved imaging of ultrafast dynamics.
We develop a new scheme for determining molecular partial atomic charges (PACs) with external electrostatic potential (ESP) closely mimicking that of the molecule. The PACs are the ‘minimal corrections’ to a reference set of PACs necessaryfor reproducing exactly the tensor components of the Cartesian zero-, first- and second- molecular electrostatic multipoles. We evaluate the quality of ESP reproduction when ‘minimally correcting’(MC) Mulliken, Hirshfeld or iterative-Hirshfeld reference PACs. In all these cases, the MC-PACs significantly improve the ESP while preserving the reference PACs’invariance under the molecular symmetry operations. When iterative-Hirshfeld PACs are used as reference, the MC-PACs yield ESPs of comparable quality to those of the ChElPG charge fitting method.
An ab initio Langevin dynamics approach is developed based on stochastic density functional theory (sDFT) within a new embedded fragment formalism. The forces on the nuclei generated by sDFT contain a random component natural to Langevin dynamics and its standard deviation is used to estimate the friction term on each atom by satisfying the fluctuation–dissipation relation. The overall approach scales linearly with system size even if the density matrix is not local and is thus applicable to ordered as well as disordered extended systems. We implement the approach for a series of silicon nanocrystals (NCs) of varying size with a diameter of up to 3nm corresponding to Ne = 3000 electrons and generate a set of configurations that are distributed canonically at a fixed temperature, ranging from cryogenic to room temperature. We also analyze the structure properties of the NCs and discuss the reconstruction of the surface geometry.
Charge carrier localization in extended atomic systems has been described previously as being driven by disorder, point defects, or distortions of the ionic lattice. Here we show for the first time by means of first-principles computations that charge carriers can spontaneously localize due to a purely electronic effect in otherwise perfectly ordered structures. Optimally tuned range-separated density functional theory and many-body perturbation calculations within the GW approximation reveal that in trans-polyacetylene and polythiophene the hole density localizes on a length scale of several nanometers. This is due to exchange-induced translational symmetry breaking of the charge density. Ionization potentials, optical absorption peaks, excitonic binding energies, and the optimally tuned range parameter itself all become independent of polymer length as it exceeds the critical localization length. Moreover, we find that lattice disorder and the formation of a polaron result from the charge localization in contrast to the traditional view that lattice distortions precede charge localization. Our results can explain experimental findings that polarons in conjugated polymers form instantaneously after exposure to ultrafast light pulses.
Multiexciton generation, by which more than a single electron–hole pair is generated on optical excitation, is a promising paradigm for pushing the efficiency of solar cells beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit of 31%. Utilizing this paradigm, however, requires the onset energy of multiexciton generation to be close to twice the band gap energy and the efficiency to increase rapidly above this onset. This challenge remains unattainable even using confined nanocrystals, nanorods or nanowires. Here, we show how both goals can be achieved in a nanorod heterostructure with type-II band offsets. Using pseudopotential atomistic calculation on a model type-II semiconductor heterostructure we predict the optimal conditions for controlling multiexciton generation efficiencies at twice the band gap energy. For a finite band offset, this requires a sharp interface along with a reduction of the exciton cooling and may enable a route for breaking the Shockley–Queisser limit.
The applicability of Mulliken’s theory for photoinduced as well as intramolecular charge-transfer states is examined for several systems of interest by comparing its predictions to TDDFT excitation energies, obtained using functionals appropriate for charge-transfer (CT) states. The results show that it is possible to estimate the energy of the CT state of a donor–acceptor pair on the basis of information on the separate donor and acceptor moieties, along with structural data, within 0.3 eV of TDDFT values. The novelty and usefulness of the proposed method lies mainly in PET applications where the TDDFT determination of the CT state is challenging.
Despite its importance, it is still not known by which mechanism Li-doped MgO catalyzes the oxidative coupling of methane to ethane. Nevertheless, it is commonly assumed that the mechanism goes through catalytic H abstraction from methane via a Li+O– surface defect. In this paper we use first-principles density functional theory calculations to show that the reaction is significantly more exothermic when the Li+O– defect is situated on a step edge instead of on the flat surface. We find that the reaction on the step is exothermic by 0.25 eV, whereas it is endothermic by 0.3 eV on the flat surface. The presence of the Li dopant in the step edge is crucial for the exothermicity of the reaction. These findings suggest that surface steps which include lithium defects could be responsible for the catalytic behavior of Li/MgO. Following the binding of hydrogen to the Li+O– defect on the step edge the methyl radical can either depart to the gas phase or bind to an adjacent step-edge oxygen atom, increasing the exothermicity of the overall process to 0.8 eV. Activation energies of 0.2 eV for the first pathway and 0.5–0.8 eV for the second were calculated.
In conventional spectroscopy, transitions between electronic levels are governed by the electric dipole selection rule because electric quadrupole, magnetic dipole, and coupled electric dipole-magnetic dipole transitions are forbidden in a far field. We demonstrated that by using nanostructured electromagnetic fields, the selection rules of absorption spectroscopy could be fundamentally manipulated. We also show that forbidden transitions between discrete quantum levels in a semiconductor nanorod structure are allowed within the near-field of a noble metal nanoparticle. Atomistic simulations analyzed by an effective mass model reveal the breakdown of the dipolar selection rules where quadrupole and octupole transitions are allowed. Our demonstration could be generalized to the use of nanostructured near-fields for enhancing light-matter interactions that are typically weak or forbidden.
Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between fluorescent proteins (FPs) is widely used to construct fluorescent sensor proteins, to study intracellular protein-protein interactions and to monitor conformational changes in multidomain proteins. Although FRET depends strongly on the orientation of the transition dipole moments (TDMs) of the donor and acceptor fluorophores, this orientation dependence is currently not taken into account in FRET sensor design. Similarly, studies that use FRET to derive structural constrains typically assume a kappa(2) of 2/3 or use the TDM of green fluorescent protein, as this is the only FP for which the TDM has been determined experimentally. Here we used time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods to calculate the TDM for a comprehensive list of commonly used fluorescent proteins. The method was validated against higher levels of calculation. Validation with model compounds and the experimentally determined TDM of GFP shows that the TDM is mostly determined by the structure of the pi-conjugated fluorophore and is insensitive to non-conjugated side chains or the protein surrounding. Our calculations not only provide TDM for most of the currently used FPs, but also suggest an empirical rule that can be used to obtain the TDMs for newly developed fluorescent proteins in the future.
A generalized Kohn-Sham (GKS) approach to density functional theory (DFT), based on the Baer-Neuhauser-Livshits range-separated hybrid, combined with ab initio motivated range-parameter tuning is used to study properties of water dimer and pentamer cations. The water dimer is first used as a benchmark system to check the approach. The present brand of DFT localizes the positive charge (hole), stabilizing the proton transferred geometry in agreement with recent coupled-cluster calculations. Relative energies of various conformers of the water dimer cation compare well with previously published coupled cluster results. The GKS orbital energies are good approximations to the experimental ionization potentials of the system. Low-lying excitation energies calculated from time-dependent DFT based on the present method compare well with recently published high-level "equation of motion-coupled-cluster" calculations. The harmonic frequencies of the water dimer cation are in good agreement with experimental and wave function calculations where available. The method is applied to study the water pentamer cation. Three conformers are identified: two are Eigen type and one is a Zundel type. The structure and harmonic vibrational structure are analyzed. The ionization dynamics of a pentamer water cluster at 0 K shows a fast <50 fs transient for transferring a proton from one of the water molecules, releasing a hydroxyl radical and creating a protonated tetramer carrying the excess hole.
We review density functional theory (DFT) within the Kohn-Sham (KS) and the generalized KS (GKS) frameworks from a theoretical perspective for both time-independent and time-dependent problems. We focus on the use of range-separated hybrids within a GKS approach as a practical remedy for dealing with the deleterious long-range self-repulsion plaguing many approximate implementations of DFT. This technique enables DFT to be widely relevant in new realms such as charge transfer, radical cation dimers, and Rydberg excitations. Emphasis is put on a new concept of system-specific range-parameter tuning, which introduces predictive power in applications considered until recently too difficult for DFT.
A theory for the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a pair of semiconducting nanocrystal quantum dots is developed. Two types of donor-acceptor couplings for the FRET rate are described: dipole-dipole (d-d) and the dipole-quadrupole (d-q) couplings. The theory builds on a simple effective mass model that is used to relate the FRET rate to measureable quantities such as the nanocrystal size, fundamental gap, effective mass, exciton radius, and optical permittivity. We discuss the relative contribution to the FRET rate of the different multipole terms, the role of strong to weak confinement limits, and the effects of nanocrystal sizes. (C) 2008 American Institute of Physics.