Probabilistic algorithms

Tempering stochastic density functional theory
Nguyen, M. ; Li, W. ; Li, Y. ; Baer, R. ; Rabani, E. ; Neuhauser, D. Tempering stochastic density functional theory. arXiv:2107.06218 [physics] Submitted. Publisher's VersionAbstract

We introduce a tempering approach with stochastic density functional theory (sDFT), labeled t-sDFT, which reduces the statistical errors in the estimates of observable expectation values. This is achieved by rewriting the electronic density as a sum of a "warm" component complemented by "colder" correction(s). Since the "warm" component is larger in magnitude but faster to evaluate, we use many more stochastic orbitals for its evaluation than for the smaller-sized colder correction(s). This results in a significant reduction of the statistical fluctuations and the bias compared to sDFT for the same computational effort. We the method's performance on large hydrogen-passivated silicon nanocrystals (NCs), finding a reduction in the systematic error in the energy by more than an order of magnitude, while the systematic errors in the forces are also quenched. Similarly, the statistical fluctuations are reduced by factors of around 4-5 for the total energy and around 1.5-2 for the forces on the atoms. Since the embedding in t-sDFT is fully stochastic, it is possible to combine t-sDFT with other variants of sDFT such as energy-window sDFT and embedded-fragmented sDFT.

Stochastic density functional theory: Real- and energy-space fragmentation for noise reduction
Chen, M. ; Baer, R. ; Neuhauser, D. ; Rabani, E. Stochastic density functional theory: Real- and energy-space fragmentation for noise reduction. J. Chem. Phys. 2021, 154, 204108. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Stochastic density functional theory (sDFT) is becoming a valuable tool for studying ground-state properties of extended materials. The computational complexity of describing the Kohn–Sham orbitals is replaced by introducing a set of random (stochastic) orbitals leading to linear and often sub-linear scaling of certain ground-state observables at the account of introducing a statistical error. Schemes to reduce the noise are essential, for example, for determining the structure using the forces obtained from sDFT. Recently, we have introduced two embedding schemes to mitigate the statistical fluctuations in the electron density and resultant forces on the nuclei. Both techniques were based on fragmenting the system either in real space or slicing the occupied space into energy windows, allowing for a significant reduction in the statistical fluctuations. For chemical accuracy, further reduction of the noise is required, which could√be achieved by increasing the number of stochastic orbitals. However, the convergence is relatively slow as the statistical error scales as 1/ Nχ according to the central limit theorem, where Nχ is the number of random orbitals. In this paper, we combined the embedding schemes mentioned above and introduced a new approach that builds on overlapped fragments and energy windows. The new approach significantly lowers the noise for ground-state properties, such as the electron density, total energy, and forces on the nuclei, as demonstrated for a G-center in bulk silicon.

Dopant levels in large nanocrystals using stochastic optimally tuned range-separated hybrid density functional theory
Lee, A. J. ; Chen, M. ; Li, W. ; Neuhauser, D. ; Baer, R. ; Rabani, E. Dopant levels in large nanocrystals using stochastic optimally tuned range-separated hybrid density functional theory. Physical Review B 2020, 102, 035112. Publisher's Version lee2020dopant.pdf
Linear-Response Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory with Stochastic Range-Separated Hybrids
Zhang, X. ; Lu, G. ; Baer, R. ; Rabani, E. ; Neuhauser, D. Linear-Response Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory with Stochastic Range-Separated Hybrids. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 2020, 16, 1064–1072. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Generalized Kohn−Sham density functional theory is a popular computational tool for the ground state of extended systems, particularly within range-separated hybrid (RSH) functionals that capture the long-range electronic interaction. Unfortunately, the heavy computational cost of the nonlocal exchange operator in RSH-DFT usually confines the approach to systems with at most a few hundred electrons. A significant reduction in the computational cost is achieved by representing the density matrix with stochastic orbitals and a stochastic decomposition of the Coulomb convolution (J. Phys. Chem. A 2016, 120, 3071). Here, we extend the stochastic RSH approach to excited states within the framework of linear-response generalized Kohn−Sham time-dependent density functional theory (GKS-TDDFT) based on the plane-wave basis. As a validation of the stochastic GKS-TDDFT method, the excitation energies of small molecules N2 and CO are calculated and compared to the deterministic results. The computational efficiency of the stochastic method is demonstrated with a two-dimensional MoS2 sheet (∼1500 electrons), whose excitation energy, exciton charge density, and (excited state) geometric relaxation are determined in the absence and presence of a point defect.

Range-separated stochastic resolution of identity: Formulation and application to second-order Green’s function theory
Dou, W. ; Chen, M. ; Takeshita, T. Y. ; Baer, R. ; Neuhauser, D. ; Rabani, E. Range-separated stochastic resolution of identity: Formulation and application to second-order Green’s function theory. The Journal of Chemical Physics 2020, 153, 074113. Publisher's VersionAbstract

We develop a range-separated stochastic resolution of identity (RS-SRI) approach for the four-index electron repulsion integrals, where the larger terms (above a predefined threshold) are treated using a deterministic RI and the remaining terms are treated using a SRI. The approach is implemented within a second-order Green’s function formalism with an improved O(N3) scaling with the size of the basis set, N. Moreover, the RS approach greatly reduces the statistical error compared to the full stochastic version [T. Y. Takeshita et al., J. Chem. Phys. 151, 044114 (2019)], resulting in computational speedups of ground and excited state energies of nearly two orders of magnitude, as demonstrated for hydrogen dimer chains and water clusters.

Efficient Langevin dynamics for "noisy" forces
Arnon, E. ; Rabani, E. ; Neuhauser, D. ; Baer, R. Efficient Langevin dynamics for "noisy" forces. J. Chem. Phys. 2020, 152, 161103. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Efficient Boltzmann-sampling using first-principles methods is challenging for extended systems due to the steep scaling of electronic structure methods with the system size. Stochastic approaches provide a gentler system-size dependency at the cost of introducing "noisy" forces, which serve to limit the efficiency of the sampling. In the first-order Langevin dynamics (FOLD), efficient sampling is achievable by combining a well-chosen preconditioning matrix S with a time-step-bias-mitigating propagator (Mazzola et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 118, 015703 (2017)). However, when forces are noisy, S is set equal to the force-covariance matrix, a procedure which severely limits the efficiency and the stability of the sampling. Here, we develop a new, general, optimal, and stable sampling approach for FOLD under noisy forces. We apply it for silicon nanocrystals treated with stochastic density functional theory and show efficiency improvements by an order-of-magnitude.

Energy window stochastic density functional theory
Chen, M. ; Baer, R. ; Neuhauser, D. ; Rabani, E. Energy window stochastic density functional theory. The Journal of Chemical Physics 2019, 151, 114116. Publisher's Version chen2019energy.pdf
Stochastic Resolution of Identity for Real-Time Second-Order Green’s Function: Ionization Potential and Quasi-Particle Spectrum
Dou, W. ; Takeshita, T. Y. ; Chen, M. ; Baer, R. ; Neuhauser, D. ; Rabani, E. Stochastic Resolution of Identity for Real-Time Second-Order Green’s Function: Ionization Potential and Quasi-Particle Spectrum. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 2019. Publisher's VersionAbstract

We develop a stochastic resolution of identity approach to the real-time second-order Green’s function (real-time sRI-GF2) theory, extending our recent work for imaginary-time Matsubara Green’s function [Takeshita et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2019, 151, 044114]. The approach provides a framework to obtain the quasi-particle spectra across a wide range of frequencies and predicts ionization potentials and electron affinities. To assess the accuracy of the real-time sRI-GF2, we study a series of molecules and compare our results to experiments as well as to a many-body perturbation approach based on the GW approximation, where we find that the real-time sRI-GF2 is as accurate as self-consistent GW. The stochastic formulation reduces the formal computatinal scaling from O(Ne5) down to O(Ne3) where Ne is the number of electrons. This is illustrated for a chain of hydrogen dimers, where we observe a slightly lower than cubic scaling for systems containing up to Ne ≈ 1000 electrons.

Transition to metallization in warm dense helium-hydrogen mixtures using stochastic density functional theory within the Kubo-Greenwood formalism
Cytter, Y. ; Rabani, E. ; Neuhauser, D. ; Preising, M. ; Redmer, R. ; Baer, R. Transition to metallization in warm dense helium-hydrogen mixtures using stochastic density functional theory within the Kubo-Greenwood formalism. Physical Review B 2019, 100. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Abstract The Kubo-Greenwood (KG) formula is often used in conjunction with Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) to compute the optical conductivity, particularly for warm dense mater. For applying the KG formula, all KS eigenstates and eigenvalues up to an energy cutoff are required and thus the approach becomes expensive, especially for high temperatures and large systems, scaling cubically with both system size and temperature. Here, we develop an approach to calculate the KS conductivity within the stochastic DFT (sDFT) framework, which requires knowledge only of the KS Hamiltonian but not its eigenstates and values. We show that the computational effort associated with the method scales linearly with system size and reduces in proportion to the temperature unlike the cubic increase with traditional deterministic approaches. In addition, we find that the method allows an accurate description of the entire spectrum, including the high-frequency range, unlike the deterministic method which is compelled to introduce a high-frequency cut-off due to memory and computational time constraints. We apply the method to helium-hydrogen mixtures in the warm dense matter regime at temperatures of \textbackslashsim60\textbackslashtext\kK\ and find that the system displays two conductivity phases, where a transition from non-metal to metal occurs when hydrogen atoms constitute \textbackslashsim0.3 of the total atoms in the system.

Quantum Monte Carlo assessment of density functionals for π-electron molecules: ethylene and bifuran
Ospadov, E. ; Rothstein, S. M. ; Baer, R. Quantum Monte Carlo assessment of density functionals for π-electron molecules: ethylene and bifuran. 2019, 117, 2241–2250. Publisher's VersionAbstract

We perform all-electron, pure-sampling quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations on ethylene and bifuran molecules. The orbitals used for importance sampling with a single Slater determinant are generated from Hartree-Fock and density functional theory (DFT). Their fixed-node energy provides an upper bound to the exact energy. The best performing density functionals for ethylene are BP86 and M06, which account for 99% of the electron correlation energy. Sampling from the π-electron distribution with these orbitals yields a quadrupole moment comparable to coupled cluster CCSD(T) calculations. However, these, and all other density functionals, fail to agree with CCSD(T) while sampling from electron density in the plane of the molecule. For bifuran, as well as ethylene, a correlation is seen between the fixed-node energy and deviance of the QMC quadrupole moment estimates from those calculated by DFT. This suggests that proximity of DFT and QMC densities correlates with the quality of the exchange nodes of the DFT wave function for both systems.

Stochastic embedding DFT: Theory and application to p-nitroaniline in water
Li, W. ; Chen, M. ; Rabani, E. ; Baer, R. ; Neuhauser, D. Stochastic embedding DFT: Theory and application to p-nitroaniline in water. 2019, 151, 174115. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Over this past decade, we combined the idea of stochastic resolution of identity with a variety of electronic structure methods. In our stochastic Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) method, the density is an average over multiple stochastic samples, with stochastic errors that decrease as the inverse square root of the number of sampling orbitals. Here, we develop a stochastic embedding density functional theory method (se-DFT) that selectively reduces the stochastic error (specifically on the forces) for a selected subsystem(s). The motivation, similar to that of other quantum embedding methods, is that for many systems of practical interest, the properties are often determined by only a small subsystem. In stochastic embedding DFT, two sets of orbitals are used: a deterministic one associated with the embedded subspace and the rest, which is described by a stochastic set. The method agrees exactly with deterministic calculations in the limit of a large number of stochastic samples. We apply se-DFT to study a p-nitroaniline molecule in water, where the statistical errors in the forces on the system (the p-nitroaniline molecule) are reduced by an order of magnitude compared with nonembedding stochastic DFT.

Nonmonotonic band gap evolution in bent phosphorene nanosheets
Vlček, V. ; Rabani, E. ; Baer, R. ; Neuhauser, D. Nonmonotonic band gap evolution in bent phosphorene nanosheets. Phys. Rev. Materials 2019, 3 064601. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Nonmonotonic bending-induced changes of fundamental band gaps and quasiparticle energies are observed for realistic nanoscale phosphorene nanosheets. Calculations using stochastic many-body perturbation theory show that even slight curvature causes significant changes in the electronic properties. For small bending radii (\textless4 nm) the band gap changes from direct to indirect. The response of phosphorene to deformation is strongly anisotropic (different for zigzag vs armchair bending) due to an interplay of exchange and correlation effects. Overall, our results show that fundamental band gaps of phosphorene sheets can be manipulated by as much as 0.7 eV depending on the bending direction.

Stochastic density functional theory
Fabian, M. D. ; Shpiro, B. ; Rabani, E. ; Neuhauser, D. ; Baer, R. Stochastic density functional theory. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Molecular Science 2019, 10.1002/wcms.1412, e1412. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Linear-scaling implementations of density functional theory (DFT) reach their intended efficiency regime only when applied to systems having a physical size larger than the range of their Kohn–Sham density matrix (DM). This causes a problem since many types of large systems of interest have a rather broad DM range and are therefore not amenable to analysis using DFT methods. For this reason, the recently proposed stochastic DFT (sDFT), avoiding exhaustive DM evaluations, is emerging as an attractive alternative linear-scaling approach. This review develops a general formulation of sDFT in terms of a (non)orthogonal basis representation and offers an analysis of the statistical errors (SEs) involved in the calculation. Using a new Gaussian-type basis-set implementation of sDFT, applied to water clusters and silicon nanocrystals, it demonstrates and explains how the standard deviation and the bias depend on the sampling rate and the system size in various types of calculations. We also develop a basis-set embedded-fragments theory, demonstrating its utility for reducing the SEs for energy, density of states and nuclear force calculations. Finally, we discuss the algorithmic complexity of sDFT, showing it has CPU wall-time linear-scaling. The method parallelizes well over distributed processors with good scalability and therefore may find use in the upcoming exascale computing architectures. This article is categorized under: Electronic Structure Theory \textgreater Ab Initio Electronic Structure Methods Structure and Mechanism \textgreater Computational Materials Science Electronic Structure Theory \textgreater Density Functional Theory

Overlapped embedded fragment stochastic density functional theory for covalently-bonded materials
Chen, M. ; Baer, R. ; Neuhauser, D. ; Rabani, E. Overlapped embedded fragment stochastic density functional theory for covalently-bonded materials. J. Chem. Phys. 2019, 150, 034106. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The stochastic density functional theory (DFT) [R. Baer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 106402 (2013)] is a valuable linear-scaling approach to Kohn-Sham DFT that does not rely on the sparsity of the density matrix. Linear (and often sub-linear) scaling is achieved by introducing a controlled statistical error in the density, energy, and forces. The statistical error (noise) is proportional to the inverse square root of the number of stochastic orbitals and thus decreases slowly; however, by dividing the system into fragments that are embedded stochastically, the statistical error can be reduced significantly. This has been shown to provide remarkable results for non-covalently-bonded systems; however, the application to covalently bonded systems had limited success, particularly for delocalized electrons. Here, we show that the statistical error in the density correlates with both the density and the density matrix of the system and propose a new fragmentation scheme that elegantly interpolates between overlapped fragments. We assess the performance of the approach for bulk silicon of varying supercell sizes (up to Ne = 16 384 electrons) and show that overlapped fragments reduce significantly the statistical noise even for systems with a delocalized density matrix.

Simple eigenvalue-self-consistent ΔGW0
Vlček, V. ; Baer, R. ; Rabani, E. ; Neuhauser, D. Simple eigenvalue-self-consistent ΔGW0. J. Chem. Phys. 2018, 149, 174107. Publisher's Version vlcek2018simple.pdf
Vlček, V. ; Li, W. ; Baer, R. ; Rabani, E. ; Neuhauser, D. Swift G W beyond 10,000 electrons using sparse stochastic compression. Phys. Rev. B 2018, 98, 075107. Publisher's Version vlcek_et_al._-_2018_-_swift_g_w_beyond_10000_electrons_using_sparse_sto.pdf
First-principles spectra of Au nanoparticles: from quantum to classical absorption
Hernandez, S. ; Xia, Y. ; Vlček, V. ; Boutelle, R. ; Baer, R. ; Rabani, E. ; Neuhauser, D. First-principles spectra of Au nanoparticles: from quantum to classical absorption. Molecular Physics 2018, 116, 2506–2511. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Absorption cross-section spectra for gold nanoparticles were calculated using fully quantum Stochastic Density Functional Theory and a classical Finite-Difference Time Domain Maxwell solver. Spectral shifts were monitored as a function of size (1.3–) and shape (octahedron, cubeoctahedron and truncated cube). Even though the classical approach is forced to fit the quantum time-dependent density functional theory at , at smaller sizes there is a significant deviation as the classical theory is unable to account for peak splitting and spectral blueshifts even after quantum spectral corrections. We attribute the failure of classical methods at predicting these features to quantum effects and low density of states in small nanoparticles. Classically, plasmon resonances are modelled as collective conduction electron excitations, but at small nanoparticle size these excitations transition to few or even individual conductive electron excitations, as indicated by our results.

Ruan, Z. ; Baer, R. Unravelling open-system quantum dynamics of non-interacting Fermions. Mol. Phys. 2018, 116, 2490-2496. Publisher's VersionAbstract

ABSTRACTThe Lindblad equation is commonly used for studying quantum dynamics in open systems that cannot be completely isolated from an environment, relevant to a broad variety of research fields, such as atomic physics, materials science, quantum biology and quantum information and computing. For electrons in condensed matter systems, the Lindblad dynamics is intractable even if their mutual Coulomb repulsion could somehow be switched off. This is because they would still be able to affect each other by interacting with the bath. Here, we develop an approximate approach, based on the HubbardStratonovich transformation, which allows to evolve non-interacting Fermions in open quantum systems. We discuss several applications for systems of trapped 1D Fermions showing promising results.

Cytter, Y. ; Rabani, E. ; Neuhauser, D. ; Baer, R. Stochastic Density Functional Theory at Finite Temperatures. Phys. Rev. B 2018, 97, 115207. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Simulations in the warm dense matter regime using finite temperature Kohn-Sham density functional theory (FT-KS-DFT), while frequently used, are extremely expensive computationally due to the partial occupation of a very large number of high-energy KS eigenstates which are obtained from subspace diagonalization. We have developed a stochastic method for applying FT-KS-DFT, that overcomes the bottleneck of calculating the occupied KS orbitals by directly obtaining the density from KS Hamiltonian. The proposed algorithm, scales as $O\left(NT^{-1}\right)$ and is compared with the high-temperature limit scaling $O\left(N^{3}T^{3}\right)$ of the deterministic approach, where $N$ is the system size (number of electrons, volume etc.) and $T$ is the temperature. The method has been implemented in a plane-waves code within the local density approximation (LDA); we demonstrate its efficiency, statistical errors and bias in the estimation of the free energy per electron for a diamond structure silicon. The bias is small compared to the fluctuations, and is independent of system size. In addition to calculating the free energy itself, one can also use the method to calculate its derivatives and obtain the equations of state.

Takeshita, T. Y. ; de Jong, W. A. ; Neuhauser, D. ; Baer, R. ; Rabani, E. Stochastic Formulation of the Resolution of Identity: Application to Second Order Møller–Plesset Perturbation Theory. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2017, 13, 4605. Publisher's VersionAbstract

A stochastic orbital approach to the resolution of identity (RI) approximation for 4 index electron repulsion integrals (ERIs) is presented. The stochastic RI-ERIs are then applied to second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) utilizing a multiple stochastic orbital approach. The introduction of multiple stochastic orbitals results in an O(N_AO^3 ) scaling for both the stochastic RI-ERIs and stochastic RI-MP2, NAO being the number of basis functions. For a range of water clusters we demonstrate that this method exhibits a small prefactor and observed scalings of O(Ne^2.4) for total energies and O(Ne^3.1) for forces (Ne being the number of correlated electrons), outperforming MP2 for clusters with as few as 21 water molecules.