Kurzweil, Y. ; Baer, R. Quantum memory effects on the dynamics of electrons in gold clusters. Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics) 2006, 73, 075413.Abstract

Electron dynamics in metallic clusters are examined using a time-dependent density functional theory that includes a “memory term,” i.e., attempts to describe temporal nonlocal correlations. Using the Iwamoto, Gross, and Kohn exchange-correlation XC kernel, we construct a translationally invariant memory action from which an XC potential is derived that is translationally covariant and exerts zero net force on the electrons. An efficient and stable numerical method to solve the resulting Kohn-Sham equations is presented. Using this framework, we study memory effects on electron dynamics in spherical jellium gold clusters. We find memory significantly broadens the surface plasmon absorption line, yet considerably less than measured in real gold clusters, attributed to the inadequacy of the jellium model. Memory effects on nonlinear spectroscopy are studied as well: a real-time pump-probe setup is used to study the temporal decay profile of the plasmon, finding a fast decay followed by slower tail; and in high harmonic generation, we show that memory narrows and redshifts emission lines.

Livshits, E. ; Baer, R. Time-dependent density-functional studies of the D2 Coulomb explosion. J. Phys. Chem. A 2006, 110, 8443–8450. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Real-time first principle simulations are presented of the D2 Coulomb explosion dynamics detonated by exposure to very intense few-cycle laser pulse. Three approximate functionals within the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) functionals are examined for describing the electron dynamics, including time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory. Nuclei are treated classically with quantum corrections. The calculated results are sensitive to the underlying electronic structure theory, showing too narrow kinetic energy distribution peaked at too high kinetic energy when compared with recent experimental results (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2003, 91, 093002). Experiment also shows a low energy peak which is not seen in the present calculation. We conclude that while Ehrenfest-adiabatic-TDDFT can qualitatively account for the dynamics, it requires further development, probably beyond the adiabatic approximation, to be quantitative.

Halász, G. J. ; Vibók, Á. ; Baer, R. ; Baer, M. D matrix analysis of the Renner-Teller effect: an accurate three-state diabatization for NH2. J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 125, 094102. halasz2006c.pdf
Hod, O. ; Baer, R. ; Rabani, E. Inelastic effects in Aharonov-Bohm molecular interferometers. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2006, 97, 266803.Abstract

Inelastic effects arising from electron-phonon coupling in molecular Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometers are studied using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. Results for the magnetoconductance are compared for different values of the electron-phonon coupling strength. At low-bias voltages, the coupling to the phonons does not change the lifetime and leads mainly to scattering phase shifts of the conducting electrons. As a result of these dephasing processes, the magnetoconductance of the molecular AB interferometer becomes more sensitive to the threading magnetic flux as the electron-phonon coupling is increased, opposite to the behavior of an electric gate.

Hod, O. ; Rabani, E. ; Baer, R. Magnetoresistance of nanoscale molecular devices. Acc. Chem. Res. 2006, 39, 109–117.Abstract

Affecting the current through a molecular or nanoscale junction is usually done by a combination of bias and gate voltages. Magnetic fields are less studied because nanodevices can capture only low values of the magnetic flux. We review recent work done with the aim of finding the conditions for magnetic fields to significantly affect the conductance of such junctions. The basic idea is to create narrow tunneling resonances through a molecular ring-like structure that are highly sensitive to the magnetic field. We describe a computational method that allows us to examine atomistic models of such systems and discuss several specific examples of plausible systems, such as the quantum corral, carbon nanotubes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. A unique property of the magnetic field, namely, its ability to split degenerate levels on the ring, is shown to allow prototypes of interesting new nanoscale devices, such as the three-terminal parallel logic gate.

Baer, R. ; Neuhauser, D. Theoretical studies of molecular scale near-field electron dynamics. J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 125, 074709–9.Abstract

Near-field scanning microscopy and nonlinear spectroscopy on a molecular scale involve weakly interacting subsystems that dynamically exchange electrons and electromagnetic energy. The theoretical description of such processes requires unified approach to the electron-near-field dynamics. By considering electronic structure and dynamics of two distant clusters or atoms we show that adiabatic local spin-density approximation (ALSDA) fails to describe (even qualitatively) essential details of electron dynamics in weakly interacting systems. A recently developed functional addresses these ailments within a time-dependent setting. With this method we study the spectroscopy of a composite system, namely, two weakly coupled metallic clusters. The near-field (dipole-dipole) coupling and electron transfer display an interesting interplay, producing exponential sensitivity of emission yield to the intercomponent distance.

Baer, R. ; Livshits, E. ; Neuhauser, D. Avoiding self-repulsion in density functional description of biased molecular junctions. Chem. Phys. 2006, 329, 266–275.Abstract

We examine the effects of self-repulsion on the predictions of charge distribution in biased molecular junctions by the local density functional theory methods. This is done using a functional with explicit long-range exchange term effects [R. Baer, D. Neuhauser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 043002]. We discuss in detail the new density functional, pointing out some of the remaining difficulties in the theory. We find that in weakly coupled junctions (the typical molecular electronics case) local-density functionals fail to describe correctly the charge distribution in the intermediate bias regime. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Shemesh, D. ; Baer, R. ; Seideman, T. ; Gerber, B. R. Photoionization dynamics of glycine adsorbed on a silicon cluster:“On-the-fly” simulations. The Journal of chemical physics 2005, 122, 184704.Abstract

Dynamics of glycine chemisorbed on the surface of a silicon cluster is studied for a process that involves single-photon ionization, followed by recombination with the electron after a selected time delay. The process is studied by “on-the-fly” molecular dynamics simulations, using the semiempirical parametric method number 3 (PM3) potential energy surface. The system is taken to be in the ground state prior to photoionization, and time delays from 5 to 50 fs before the recombination are considered. The time evolution is computed over 10 ps. The main findings are (1) the positive charge after ionization is initially mostly distributed on the silicon cluster. (2) After ionization the major structural changes are on the silicon cluster. These include Si–Si bond breaking and formation and hydrogen transfer between different silicon atoms. (3) The transient ionization event gives rise to dynamical behavior that depends sensitively on the ion state lifetime. Subsequent to 45 fs evolution in the charged state, the glycine molecule starts to rotate on the silicon cluster. Implications of the results to various processes that are induced by transient transition to a charged state are discussed. These include inelastic tunneling in molecular devices, photochemistry on conducting surfaces, and electron-molecule scattering.

Neuhauser, D. ; Baer, R. Efficient linear-response method circumventing the exchange-correlation kernel: Theory for molecular conductance under finite bias. The Journal of chemical physics 2005, 123, 204105.Abstract

An iterative approach for calculating the frequency domain linear response of molecular systems within time-dependent density-functional theory is presented. The method completely avoids computing the exchange-correlation kernel which is typically the most expensive step for large systems. In particular, virtual orbitals are not needed. This approach may be useful for treating the response of large systems. We give an outline of the theory and a demonstration on a jellium model of an elliptic gold cluster. A detailed theory is appended discussing the computation of conductance and ac impedance of molecular junctions under bias.

Kurzweil, Y. ; Baer, R. Generic Galilean-invariant exchange-correlation functionals with quantum memory. Phys. Rev. B 2005, 72, 035106.Abstract

Today, most application of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) use adiabatic exchange- correlation (XC) potentials that do not take into account non-local temporal effects. Incorporating such "memory" terms into XC potentials is complicated by the constraint that the derived force and torque densities must integrate to zero at every instance. This requirement can be met by deriving the potentials from an XC action that is Galilean in-variant (GI). We develop a class of simple but flexible forms for an action that respect these constraints. The basic idea is to formulate the action in terms of the Eularian-Lagrangian transformation (ELT) metric tensor, which is itself GI. The general form of the XC potentials in this class is then derived and the linear response limit is derived as well.

Hod, O. ; Rabani, E. ; Baer, R. Magnetoresistance Devices Based on Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes. J. Chem. Phys. 2005, 123, 051103.Abstract

We demonstrate the physical principles for the construction of a nanometer-sized magnetoresistance device based on the Aharonov-Bohm effect [Phys. Rev. 115, 485 (1959)]. The proposed device is made of a short single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) placed on a substrate and coupled to a tip/contacts. We consider conductance due to the motion of electrons along the circumference of the tube (as opposed to the motion parallel to its axis). We find that the circumference conductance is sensitive to magnetic fields threading the SWCNT due to the Aharonov-Bohm effect, and show that by retracting the tip/contacts, so that the coupling to the SWCNT is reduced, very high sensitivity to the threading magnetic field develops. This is due to the formation of a narrow resonance through which the tunneling current flows. Using a bias potential the resonance can be shifted to low magnetic fields, allowing the control of conductance with magnetic fields of the order of 1 T.

Hod, O. ; Rabani, E. ; Baer, R. A Parallel Electromagnetic Molecular Logic Gate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 1648. hod2005a.pdf
Jacobi, S. ; Baer, R. Variational grand-canonical electronic structure method for open systems. J. Chem. Phys. 2005, 123, 044112.Abstract

An ab initio method is developed for variational grand-canonical molecular electronic structure of open systems based on the Gibbs–Peierls–Boguliobov inequality. We describe the theory and a practical method for performing the calculations within standard quantum chemistry codes using Gaussian basis sets. The computational effort scales similarly to the ground-state Hartree–Fock method. The quality of the approximation is studied on a hydrogen molecule by comparing to the exact Gibbs free energy, computed using full configuration-interaction calculations. We find the approximation quite accurate, with errors similar to those of the Hartree–Fock method for ground-state zero-temperature calculations. A further demonstration is given of the temperature effects on the bending potential curve for water. Some future directions and applications of the method are discussed. Several appendices give the mathematical and algorithmic details of the method.

Baer, R. ; Neuhauser, D. A density functional theory with correct long-range asymptotic behavior. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2005, 94, 043002.Abstract

We derive an exact representation of the exchange-correlation energy within density functional theory (DFT) which spawns a class of approximations leading to correct long-range asymptotic behavior. Using a simple approximation, we develop an electronic structure theory that combines a new local correlation energy (based on Monte Carlo calculations applied to the homogeneous electron gas) and a combination of local and explicit long-ranged exchange. The theory is applied to several first-row atoms and diatomic molecules where encouraging results are obtained: good description of the chemical bond at the same time allowing for bound anions, reasonably accurate affinity energies, and correct polarizability of an elongated hydrogen chain. Further stringent tests of DFT are passed, concerning ionization potential and charge distribution under large bias

Baer, R. ; Kurzweil, Y. ; Cederbaum, L. S. Time-dependent density functional theory for nonadiabatic processes. Isr. J. Chem. 2005, 45, 161–170.Abstract

Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is a general and robust method allowing the study of electron dynamics whether induced by nuclear motion or by external fields. We give a brief overview of the theory and some numerical methods together with recent applications stressing the generality and wide applicability of the method. We also discuss recent attempts to extend the present TDDFT by incorporating memory terms into the exchange correlation potentials.

Ryb, I. ; Baer, R. Combinatorial invariants and covariants as tools for conical intersections. J. Chem. Phys. 2004, 121, 10370–10375.Abstract

The combinatorial invariant and covariant are introduced as practical tools for analysis of conical intersections in molecules. The combinatorial invariant is a quantity depending on adiabatic electronic states taken at discrete nuclear configuration points. It is invariant to the phase choice (gauge) of these states. In the limit that the points trace a loop in nuclear configuration space, the value of the invariant approaches the corresponding Berry phase factor. The Berry phase indicates the presence of an odd or even number of conical intersections on surfaces bounded by these loops. Based on the combinatorial invariant, we develop a computationally simple and efficient method for locating conical intersections. The method is robust due to its use of gauge invariant nature. It does not rely on the landscape of intersecting potential energy surfaces nor does it require the computation of nonadiabatic couplings. We generalize the concept to open paths and combinatorial covariants for higher dimensions obtaining a technique for the construction of the gauge-covariant adiabatic-diabatic transformation matrix. This too does not make use of nonadiabatic couplings. The importance of using gauge-covariant expressions is underlined throughout. These techniques can be readily implemented by standard quantum chemistry codes.

Walter, D. ; Neuhauser, D. ; Baer, R. Quantum interference in polycyclic hydrocarbon molecular wires. Chem. Phys. 2004, 299, 139–145.Abstract

The construction of devices based on molecular components depends upon the development of molecular wires with adaptable current-voltage characteristics. Here, we report that quantum interference effects could lead to substantial differences in conductance in molecular wires which include some simple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). For molecular wires containing a single benzene. anthracene or tetracene molecule a large peak appears in the electron transmission probability spectrum at an energy just above the lowest unoccupied orbital (LUMO). For a molecular wire containing a single naphthalene molecule, however, this same peak essentially vanishes. Furthermore, the peak can be re-established by altering the attachment points of the molecular leads to the naphthalene molecule. A breakdown of the individual terms contributing the relevant peak confirms that these results are in fact due to quantum interference effects. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Liang, W. Z. ; Baer, R. ; Saravanan, C. ; Shao, Y. ; Bell, A. T. ; Head-Gordon, M. Fast methods for resumming matrix polynomials and Chebyshev matrix polynomials. J. Comput. Phys. 2004, 194, 575–587. liang2004fast.pdf
Kurzweil, Y. ; Baer, R. Time-dependent exchange-correlation current density functionals with memory. J. Chem. Phys. 2004, 121, 8731–8741.Abstract

Most present applications of time-dependent density functional theory use adiabatic functionals, i.e. the effective potential at time t is determined solely by the density at the same time. This paper discusses a method that aims to go beyond this approximation, by incorporating "memory" effects: the potential will depend not only on present behavior but also on the past. In order to ensure the derived potentials are causal, we formulate the action on the Keldysh contour for electrons in electromagnetic fields, from which we derive suitable Kohn-Sham equations. The exchange correlation action is now a functional of the electron density and velocity field. A specific action functional is constructed which is Galilean invariant and yields a causal vector potential term to the Kohn-Sham equations that incorporates causal memory effects. We show explicitly that the exchange-correlation Lorentz force is zero. The potential is consistent with known dynamical properties of the homogeneous electron gas (in the linear response limit).

Hawthorne, M. F. ; Zink, J. I. ; Skelton, J. M. ; Bayer, M. J. ; Liu, C. ; Livshits, E. ; Baer, R. ; Neuhauser, D. Electrical or Photocontrol of the Rotary Motion of a Metallacarborane. Science 2004, 303, 1849–1851.Abstract

Rotary motion around a molecular axis has been controlled by simple electron transfer processes and by photoexcitation. The basis of the motion is intramolecular rotation of a carborane cage ligand (7,8-dicarbollide) around a nickel axle. The Ni(III) metallacarborane structure is a transoid sandwich with two pairs of carbon vertices reflected through a center of symmetry, but that of the Ni(IV) species is cisoid. The interconversion of the two provides the basis for controlled, rotational, oscillatory motion. The energies of the Ni(III) and Ni(IV) species are calculated as a function of the rotation angle.